American Journal of Medical and Biological Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4080 ISSN (Online): 2328-4099 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016, 4(3), 33-41
DOI: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Farmer: Agrochemical Use and Associated Risk Factors in Fadan Daji District of Kaura LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Bassi AP1, Ramyil MCS2, Ogundeko TO3, , Abisoye-Ogunniyan A4, Builders M3, Thliza SMA1, Adeniyi GO5, Akande Tunji6, Ike RO2, Ologun DO7, Damai C7, Pfongkazah D7, Adinoyi OA7, Dibigbo-Ibeagi Ndudi Mary5 and Nwankwo B8

1Department of Community Medicine, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

2Department of Medical Microbiology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

4Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama, USA

5Department of Haematology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

6Department of Chemical Pathology, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

7Department of Medicine and Surgery, College Medicine and Health Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria

8Department of Community Medicine, College Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria

Pub. Date: July 12, 2016

Cite this paper:
Bassi AP, Ramyil MCS, Ogundeko TO, Abisoye-Ogunniyan A, Builders M, Thliza SMA, Adeniyi GO, Akande Tunji, Ike RO, Ologun DO, Damai C, Pfongkazah D, Adinoyi OA, Dibigbo-Ibeagi Ndudi Mary and Nwankwo B. Farmer: Agrochemical Use and Associated Risk Factors in Fadan Daji District of Kaura LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016; 4(3):33-41. doi: 10.12691/ajmbr-4-3-1


Background: Occupational poisoning via the use of agrochemicals is common in developing countries. This is because grass-root farmers, who are the majority, are poor, illiterate and are undertrained on ethics surrounding its use. This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out in Fadan-Daji (FD) district of Kagoro Chiefdom, Kaura LGA, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Methods: Three villages - Kodwak, Uzha-Tuyit and Zankam were randomly selected in the district. A sample size of 250 farmers was obtained using a p-value of 82%, while the selected farmers completed structured questionnaires. Results: Physical, chemical, biological, mechanical and psychosocial events occurred at the same time in the FD Farming community. Thus, clients present with multiple finding or symptoms. In this study most farmers experienced chest pain/tightness, cough, dizziness, reddening of the eyes; sneezing and rheum more often following the use on their farms. This study further revealed that farmers in the studied communities (31.6%) resorted to self-medication ranging from analgesics, to over the counter antihistamines, whilst 23.6% reported that they ingest milk as antidote. 32.4% did nothing about it while only 12.4% of the respondents visited a health facility. 54.4% of FD farmers used no form of personal protective devices (PPDs). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the root problem faced with the FD like the average farmer of the developing world is lack of relevant education in terms of ethical use and disposal of agrochemicals which has made a significant number of FD farmers more susceptible to the agrochemical side effects resulting from its use. Such a community located in the heart of Nigeria also being a food basket needs prompt attention in terms of improved western/farmer education and health facilities.

agrochemicals risk factors farmers Fadan-Daji Nigeria

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 4


[1]  Okoloko, O., (2006). African Green Revolution Paper Delivered at African Inorganic fertilizer Summit, (June 9-13, 2006), Abuja, Nigeria. Retrieved from: (Accessed on: December 10, 2015).
[2]  Avav, T. and Oluwatayo, J. I. (2006). Environmental and Health Impact of Pesticides. Jolytta Publications, Makurdi. . Ayansina ADV, Ogunshe AAO, Fagade OE (2003). Environment Impact Assessment and Microbiologist: An overview. Proc. Of 11th annual national conf. of Environment and Behaviour Association of Nig. (EBAN), pp. 26-27.
[3]  Ayoola, G. B. (1990). The Marketing of Agricultural Pesticides in Nigeria. National Workshop on the Pesticides Industry in Nigeria. University of Ibadan, 6-8 February 1990.Publication No. 11.
[4]  Christin MS, Me´nard L, Gendron AD, Ruby S, Cyr D, Marcogliese DJ, Rollins- Smith L, Fournier M. 2004. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens. Aquatic Toxicology, 67, 33-43.
[5]  Gu X, Tian S. 2005. Pesticide and cancer. World’s Scientific Technology and Develoment, 27(2), 47-52.
[6]  Galloway T, Handy R. 2007. Immunotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides. Ecotoxicology, 12(1-4), 345-363.
[7]  Tuc VP, Wangsuphachart V, Tasanapradit P, Fungladda W, Van Trong P, Nhung NT. 2007. Impacts of pesticide use on semen characteristics among rice farmers in Kienxuong District, Thaibinh Province, Vietnam. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 3, 569-575.
[8]  Hoppin JA, Umbach DM, London SJ, Alavanja MCR, Sandler DP. 2002. Chemical predictors of wheeze among farmer pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 5, 683-689.
[9]  Ide C (2008). Pastoral Care, Safety Health Practitioner Magazine, Nov 2008 United Media. International Inorganic Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), (1996). Africa Inorganic fertilizer Situation, IFDC November.
[10]  Bohmont BL. 1990. The standard pesticide user’s guide. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Prentice Hall.
[11]  Simon-Sylvestre G, Fournier JC (1979). Effects of Pesticides on Soil Micro Flora. Adv. Agron. 31: 1-92
[12]  Friedrich T (1996). Agricultural Pesticide Application. FAO Agricultural Engineering Branch AGSE, FAO Rome.
[13]  Kalia A, Gupta RP. 2004. Disruption of soil foodweb by pesticides. Ind J Ecol. 31(2):85-92.
[14]  Blair A, Zahm SH. Cancer among farmers. Occup Med1991;6:335-54.
[15]  Jors E. 2004. Acute Pesticide Poisonings Among Small-Scale Farmers in La Paz County, Bolivia [master’s thesis]. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen
[16]  Lawal BO,Torimiro DO, Banjo AD, Joda AO: Operational Habits and Health Hazards Associated With Pesticide Usage by Cocoa Farmers in Nigeria: Lessons for ExtensionWork. J. Hum. Ecol., 17(3): 191-195 (2005).
[17]  Meijden G, van der (1998). Pesticide Application Techniques in West Africa. A study by the Agricultural Engineering Branch of FAO through the FAO Regional Office for Africa. 17pp.
[18]  Ajayi, O. Akinnifesi, F. and Sileshi, G. (2011) Human health and occupational exposure to pesticides among smallholder farmers in cotton zones of Côte d'Ivoire. Health, 3, 631-637.
[19]  Mokhele T. Potential health effects of pesticide use on farmworkers in Lesotho. S Afr J Sci. 2011;107(7/8), Art. #509, 7 pages.
[20]  Ogunjimi SI. Farinde AJ: Farmers’ Knowledge Level of Precautionary Measures in Agro -Chemicals Usage on Cocoa Production in Osun and Edo States, Nigeria International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2012, 2(4): 186-194.
[21]  Buczynska A, Szadkowska-Stanczyk I. 2005. Identification of health hazards to rural population living near pesticide dump sites in Poland. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 18, 331-339.
[22]  Leyk S, Binder CR, Nuckols JR. 2009. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: The case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world. International Journal of Health Geographics, 8(17), 1-16.
[23]  Elfvendahl S, Mihale M, Kishimba MA, Kylin H. 2004. Pesticide pollution remains severe after cleanup of a stockpile of obsolete pesticides at Vikuge, Tanzania. Ambio, 33, 503-508.
[24]  International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans; some N-nitroso compounds. In: IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem.Man. Vol 17 Lyon, France: IARC, 1978; 1-349.
[25]  Magee PN. The experimental basis for the role of nitroso compounds in human cancer. Cancer Surv1989; 8: 207-39.
[26]  Eichholzer M, Gutzwiller F. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Nutr Rev1998; 56:95-105.
[27]  Musicco M, Sant M, Molinari S, et al. A case-control study of brain gliomas and occupational exposure to chemical carcinogens: the risk to farmers. Am J Epidemiol1988; 128: 778-85.
[28]  Otunaiya, O.A, Okuneye P.A., and Aihonsu., J.O.Y.: Pattern of Inorganic Fertilizer use among Food Crop; Farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(1): 26-31, 2012
[29]  Ahemba, T., Inorganic Fertilizer Plant Restart after 10 Years. 2009 Retrieved from: http//www. Online
[30]  Govinda Bhandari, “An Overview of Agrochemicals and Their Effects on Environment in Nepal.” Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2 (2014): 66-73.
[31]  “Post Offices- with map of LGA”. NIPOST. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
[32]  Fisher RA. The logic of inductive inference (with discussion). Journal of Royal Statistical Society. 1935;98:39-82.
[33]  Toyin Samuel Olowogbon, Segun Bamidele Fakayode, Ademola John Jolaiya, Adebola Omolara Oke. Agrochemicals, Health, Safety, Implications, Nigeria and Small Scale Farmers Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 15, No.1, 2013) ISSN: 1520-5509 Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, Pennsylvania.
[34]  Kaliyaperuma Karunamoorthi, Abraham Yirgalem :Insecticide Risk Indicators and Occupational Insecticidal Poisoning in Indoor Residual Spraying. Health Scope. 2013 February; 1(4): 165-172.
[35]  Yaser Issa, Farid Abu Sham’a, Khaldoun Nijem, Espen Bjertness, Petter Kristensen: Pesticide use and opportunities of exposure among farmers and their families: cross-sectional studies 1998-2006 from Hebron governorate,occupied Palestinian territory. Environ Health. 2010;9:63.pp1-10.
[36]  Tijani AA. 2006. Pesticide use practices and safety issues: the case of cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. J Hum Ecol. 2006; 19: 183-190.
[37]  Faith Eyayo: Evaluation of Occupational Health Hazards among Oil Industry Workers: A Case Study of Refinery Workers. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT) e-ISSN: 2319-2402, p-ISSN: 2319-2399.Volume 8, Issue 12 Ver. I (Dec. 2014), PP 22-53.
[38]  Wise GEEK. October 2013).
[39]  Business Dictionary. (cited October 2013).
[40]  Lebov, J. F. et al. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ. Res. 143, 198-210 (2015).
[41]  Mamane A, Baldi I, Tessier JF, Raherison C, Bouvier G. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health. Eur Respir Rev. 2015 Jun;24(136):306-19.
[42]  Beseler CL, Stallones L. Pesticide poisoning and respiratory disorders in Colorado farm residents. J Agric Saf Health. 2009 Oct; 15(4): 327-34.
[43]  Collotta M, Bertazzi PA, Bollati V. Epigenetics and pesticides. Toxicology. 2013 May 10;307: 35-41.
[44]  Baccarelli A, Bollati V. Epigenetics and environmental chemicals. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009 Apr;21(2):243-51.
[45]  Antwi, S. O. et al. Exposure to environmental chemicals and heavy metals, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Causes {&} Control 26, 1583-1591 (2015).
[46]  Andreotti G, Silverman DT: Occupational risk factors and pancreatic cancer: a review of recent findings. Mol. Carcinog. 51, 98-108 (2012).
[47]  Silva, João F.S., Inês E. Mattos, Laércio L. Luz, et al. “Exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: systematic review of the literature” Reviews on Environmental Health, 0.0 (2016)
[48]  Lewis-Mikhael AM, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Ofir Guiron T, Olmedo-Requena R, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Jiménez-Moleón JJ. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2016 Feb; 73(2): 134-44.
[49]  Van Maele-Fabry G, Duhayon S, Mertens C, Lison D. Risk of leukaemia among pesticide manufacturing workers: a review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Environ Res. 2008 Jan; 106(1):121-37.
[50]  Van Maele-Fabry G, Duhayon S, Lison D. A systematic review of myeloid leukemias and occupational pesticide exposure. Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jun; 18(5):457-78.
[51]  Van Maele-Fabry G, Lantin AC, Hoet P, Lison D. Childhood leukaemia and parental occupational exposure to pesticides: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun; 21(6):787-809.
[52]  Gómez-Barroso D, García-Pérez J, López-Abente G, Tamayo-Uria I, Morales-Piga A, Pardo Romaguera E, Ramis R. Agricultural crop exposure and risk of childhood cancer: new findings from a case-control study in Spain. Int J Health Geogr. 2016 May 31;15(1):18.
[53]  Fenga C. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer. Biomed Rep. 2016 Mar;4(3):282-292. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
[54]  Wolff MS, Collman GW, Barrett JC, Huff J. Breast cancer and environmental risk factors: epidemiological and experimental findings. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1996; 36:573-96.
[55]  Brody JG, Rudel RA. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jun;111(8):1007-19.
[56]  World Health Organization: Recommended Health based occupational exposure limits for selected vegetable dusts (Report of a study group). WHO Technical report series 1983; 684:35-49.
[57]  Farmworker justice: Immigration and labour health initiatives, occupational health and safety. 1126 16th St NW # 270, Washington, DC, 20036 | (202) 293-5420. Cited online 8th June,
[58]  Huang Y, Liu L, Pei E. 2008. Vegetative pesticide residue and application behavior in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Food Hygiene, 20, 319-321.
[59]  Xu Y. 2004. Survey of improper pesticide application in rice production. Jiangxi Agricultural Technology, 11, 27-28.
[60]  Dongmei Z. 2006. Development of bio-pesticide industry in China. Unpublished PhD thesis, Fujian University of Agriculture and Forestry, Fujian, China.