American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2018, 6(2), 51-56
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-6-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Identification and Molecular Characterization of Alpha Papillomavirus from Male Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Maintained in a Captive Colony

Rose Kavurani1, 2, , Johnson Kinyua1, Atunga Nyachieo3 and Daniel Chai2

1Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000 – 00200, Nairobi, Kenya

2Department of Animal Science, Institute of Primate Research, P.O. Box 24481-00502, Nairobi, Kenya

3Department of Reproductive health and Biology, Institute of Primate Research, P.O Box 24481-00502, Nairobi, Kenya

Pub. Date: September 11, 2018

Cite this paper:
Rose Kavurani, Johnson Kinyua, Atunga Nyachieo and Daniel Chai. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Alpha Papillomavirus from Male Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Maintained in a Captive Colony. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2018; 6(2):51-56. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-6-2-3


Papillomaviruses (PVs) are ubiquitous highly diverse group of circular double stranded DNA viruses. Nearly all the human papillomavirus (HPVs) that cause cancer are clustered in Alphapapillomavirus (αPV) genera and have a common ancestor. The aim of the study was to isolate and perform molecular characterization of alphapapilloma virus from male olive baboons (Papio anubis) that are maintained in a captive colony at the Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi, Kenya and establish their evolutionary relationship with known strains responsible for various species causing cervical cancer in human. Twenty (n=20) different genital swabs from sexually active male olive baboons were collected. Positive samples for αPV by nested PCR were 9/20 (45%). The nested PCR primers targeted a conserved region of L1 major capsid gene and aided in generating amplicons of 134bp. Only three amplicons with good quality bands (1C, 2C, and 4C) were further sequenced and analysed using MEGA X, Clustal W algorithm and DnaSP 5.10.01 software. Phylogenetic analysis through Neighbour-joining method indicated a close evolutionary relationship between subtype 2C and Human papillomavirus (AB745694) which is associated with human cervical cancer. Subtype 2C was found to be more close to 1C than 4C and other sequences of JF304764, EU490515, EF558839, AB745694, FJ598133 as well as EF591300 blasted from NCBI and treated as outgroup. On analysis of genetic diversity using DnaSP software, sequences of subtype 2C and 4C were found to harbour synonymous SNPs at position four and eight respectively hence indicating that the region is more conserved. Male olive baboon harbor αPV and may be a good model for study of the pathogenesis of HPV and also for testing therapeutic agents that target αPVs in both humans and non-human primates.

alphapapillomavirus male olive baboon prevalence non-human primates SNPs

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Bergin IL, Bell JD, Chen Z, Zochowski MK, Chai D, Schmidt K, Culmer DL, Aronoff DM, Patton DL, Mwenda JM, Wood CE. Novel genital alphapapillomaviruses in baboons (Papio hamadryas Anubis) with cervical dysplasia. Veterinary pathology. 2013 Jan; 50(1): 200-8.
[2]  Doorbar, John, Nagayasu Egawa, Heather Griffin, Christian Kranjec, and Isao Murakami. 2015. Human Papillomavirus Molecular Biology and Disease Association. Reviews in Medical Virology 25 (Suppl Suppl 1): 2-23.
[3]  Egawa N, Egawa K, Griffin H, Doorbar J. Human papillomaviruses; epithelial tropisms, and the development of neoplasia. Viruses. 2015 Jul 16; 7(7): 3863-90.
[4]  Doorbar J, Goldstein RA (2010). Analysis of host parasite incongruence in papillomavirus evolution using importance sampling. Mol.Biol.Evol. 27, 1301-13145
[5]  Gottschling M, Göker M, Stamatakis A, Bininda-Emonds OR, Nindl I, Bravo IG. Quantifying the phylodynamic forces driving papillomavirus evolution. Molecular biology and evolution. 2011 Jan 31; 28(7): 2101-13.
[6]  Lazcano-Ponce E, Herrero R, MuÑoz N, Hernandez-Avila M, SalmerÓn J, Leyva A, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Mexican males: comparative study of penile-urethral swabs and urine samples. Sexually transmitted diseases. 2001 May 1; 28(5): 277-80.
[7]  Cubie HA. Diseases associated with human papillomavirus infection. Virology. 2013 Oct 1; 445(1-2): 21-34.
[8]  Jung HS, Erkin OC, Kwon MJ, Kim SH, Jung JI, Oh YK, Her SW, Ju W, Choi YL, Song SY, Kim JK. The synergistic therapeutic effect of cisplatin with human papillomavirus E6/E7 short interfering RNA on cervical cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. International journal of cancer. 2012 Apr 15; 130(8): 1925-36.
[9]  Van Doorslaer K, Burk RD. Association between hTERT activation by HPV E6 proteins and oncogenic risk. Virology. 2012 Nov 10; 433(1): 216.
[10]  Jung, Hun Soon, Nirmal Rajasekaran, Sang Yong Song, Young Deug Kim, Sungyoul Hong, Hyuck Jae Choi, Young Seok Kim, Jong-Sun Choi, Yoon-La Choi, and Young Kee Shin. 2015. Human Papillomavirus E6/E7-Specific SiRNA Potentiates the Effect of Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16 (6): 12243-60.
[11]  Burk RD, Chen Z, Van Doorslaer K. Human papillomaviruses: genetic basis of carcinogenicity. Public health genomics. 2009; 12(5-6): 281-90.
[12]  Dell’Oste V, Azzimonti B, De Andrea M, Mondini M, Zavattaro E, Leigheb G, Weissenborn SJ, Pfister H, Michael KM, Waterboer T, Pawlita M, Amantea A, et al. High beta-HPV DNA loads and strong seroreactivity are present in epidermodysplasia verruciformis. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2009; 129(4): 1026-1034.
[13]  de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H. Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology. 2004 Jun 20; 324(1): 17-27.
[14]  Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Robert D. Burk. Evolution of Human Papillomavirus carcinogenicity 2010.
[15]  Parkin DM, The Global health burden of infection associated cancers in the year 2002, 2006.
[16]  Collins AS, Nakahara T, Do A, Lambert PF. Interactions with pocket proteins contribute to the role of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 in the papillomavirus life cycle. Journal of virology. 2005 Dec 15; 79(23): 14769-80.
[17]  Doorbar, John, Nagayasu Egawa, Heather Griffin, Christian Kranjec, and Isao Murakami. 2015. Human Papillomavirus Molecular Biology and Disease Association. Reviews in Medical Virology 25 (Suppl Suppl 1): 2-23.
[18]  Muller M, Demeret C. CCHCR1 interacts specifically with the E2 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 on a surface overlapping BRD4 binding. PloS one. 2014 Mar 24; 9(3): e92581
[19]  Bernard HU, Burk RD, Chen Z, van Doorslaer K, zur Hausen H, de Villiers EM. Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology. 2010 May 25; 401(1): 70-9.
[20]  Campo, 2002: Animal models of papillomavirus Pathogenesis.
[21]  A. Rector, R. Tachezy, M. Van Ranst A sequence-independent strategy for detection and cloning of circular DNA virus genomes by using multiply primed rolling-circle amplification. J virol. 2004 May; 78(10): 4993-4998.
[22]  Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Evolution of the Papillomaviridae 2013.
[23]  Castle PE, Schiffman M, Gravitt PE, et al. Comparisons of HPV DNA detection by MY09/11 PCR methods. J Med Virol. 2002; 68: 417-423.
[24]  Daniel Chai, Christine Bassis, Ingrid Bergin, Jason bel, Atunga Nyachieo and Peter K. Gathumbi. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Papio hamadryas papillomavirus 1 (PhPV1) in Kenyan Baboons, 2017.
[25]  Schiffman M, Herrero R, DeSalle R, Hildesheim A, Wacholder S, Rodriguez AC, Bratti MC, Sherman ME, Morales J, Guillen D, Alfaro M. The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution. Virology. 2005 Jun 20; 337(1): 76-84.
[26]  Kimura M. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of molecular evolution. 1980 Jun 1; 16(2): 111-20.
[27]  Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C., & Tamura, K. (2018). MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms. Molecular biology and evolution, 35(6), 1547-1549.
[28]  Knauf S. Clinical manifestation and aetiology of a genital associated disease in Olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, Universitätsbibliothek Giessen).
[29]  Payton ME, d'Offay JM, Prado ME, Black DH, Damania B, White GL, Eberle R. Comparative transmission of multiple herpesviruses and simian virus 40 in a baboon breeding colony. Comparative medicine. 2004 Dec 15; 54(6): 695-704.
[30]  Buck CB, Day PM, Trus BL. The papillomavirus major capsid protein L1. Virology. 2013 Oct 1; 445(1-2): 169-74.
[31]  King AJ, Sonsma JA, Vriend HJ, Van Der Sande MA, Feltkamp MC, Boot HJ, Koopmans MP. Genetic Diversity in the Major Capsid L1 Protein of HPV-16 and HPV-18 in the Netherlands. PloS one. 2016 Apr 12; 11(4): e0152782
[32]  Chow VT, Leong PW. Complete nucleotide sequence, genomic organization and phylogenetic analysis of a novel genital human papillomavirus type, HLT7474-S. Journal of general virology. 1999 Nov 1; 80(11): 2923-9.
[33]  de Villiers EM. Cross-roads in the classification of papillomaviruses. Virology. 2013 Oct 1; 445(1-2): 2-10.
[34]  Mitsuishi T, Ohsawa I, Kato T, Egawa N, Kiyono T. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a novel type of human papillomavirus 160 isolated from a flat wart of an immunocompetent patient. PloS one. 2013 Nov 8; 8(11): e79592.