American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajidm Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
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American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2018, 6(1), 9-15
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-6-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Transfusion Transmissible Viral Infections Risk at Two Teaching Hospitals Blood Banks in Nigeria

Osuji A1, , Agbakoba N. R.2 and Ifeanyichukwu M. O.2

1Microbiology and Immunology Department, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

2Medical Laboratory Science Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: March 02, 2018

Cite this paper:
Osuji A, Agbakoba N. R. and Ifeanyichukwu M. O.. Transfusion Transmissible Viral Infections Risk at Two Teaching Hospitals Blood Banks in Nigeria. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2018; 6(1):9-15. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-6-1-2

Abstract

Background/ Objectives: Transfusion Transmissible viral infections such as HIV, HBV and HCV are infectious agents that can pose a threat to blood safety. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and coinfection of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among blood donors tested negative to these viruses by rapid test devices. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twelve (212) healthy blood donors (108 and 104 from UATH and NAUTH respectively) certified fit for blood donation were recruited for this study. One hundred and nine eighty (198) samples that were seronegative for HBsAg, HIV, HCV and Syphilis by rapid test were examined for the presence of HBsAg, Anti-HCV and HIV (Ab + Ag) using 4TH generation ELISA. Qualitative conventional PCR was used to confirm ELISA positive sera for HBV DNA, HIV RNA and HCV RNA. Results: Out of 198 blood donor samples negative for HBV, HCV and HIV by rapid test, 13.7%, 13.7% and 8.1% were positive by ELISA for HBV, HIV and HCV respectively. Twelve samples (6.1%) have coinfection of TTIs. One (1) sample out of the 12 samples is co-infected with these three viral (HBV, HCV and HIV) agents. Of the 28 samples positive for HBV by ELISA, 20 (71.4%) were positive for HBV DNA, 8 (36.4%) of 22 positive samples by HIV ELISA were positive for HIV RNA and 4 (28.6%) of 14 samples were positive for HCV RNA (p=0.0001). Conclusion and Recommendations: There is a high prevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections among blood donors at our study population. This study therefore recommends blood donors in these Hospitals in particular and Nigeria in general be screened for HIV, HCV and HBsAg using ELISA 4th generation test kits and Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT).

Keywords:
blood donors screening transfusion transmissible viral infections

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