American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2017, 5(3), 109-114
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-5-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Bacterial Distribution and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of group B Streptococcus β hemolytic (GBS) in Vaginal Infections at Cotonou in Benin

Tchiakpe Edmond1, 2, , Zahra Fall Malick3, Laurence Carine Yehouenou4, Honoré Sourou Bankolé5, Bekou Kossi Wilfried4, Esse Atchéni Marius4, Halimatou Diop Ndiaye6 and Coumba Touré Kane6

1Reference National Laboratory Fighting Against AIDS, National Direction of Health, Health Ministry, 04PO Box 378 Cotonou, Benin

2National Laboratory of Health Ministry. 04 PO Box 378, Cotonou, Bénin

3National Hepato-Virology institute. Medicine Faculty of Mauritanie

4National Laboratory Fighting Against Tuberculosis. 01 PO Box 321. Cotonou, Benin

5Research Laboratory in Applied Biology, Department of Human Biology, Polytechnic. School of Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 PO Box 2009, Cotonou, Benin

6Laboratory of Bacteriology and Virology. University Cheikh Anta Diop. PO Box 7325, 30 Avenue Pasteur, Dakar, Senegal

Pub. Date: June 29, 2017

Cite this paper:
Tchiakpe Edmond, Zahra Fall Malick, Laurence Carine Yehouenou, Honoré Sourou Bankolé, Bekou Kossi Wilfried, Esse Atchéni Marius, Halimatou Diop Ndiaye and Coumba Touré Kane. Bacterial Distribution and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of group B Streptococcus β hemolytic (GBS) in Vaginal Infections at Cotonou in Benin. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2017; 5(3):109-114. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-5-3-3


No orthodox practices disrupt the vaginal flora and expose it to pathogenic microorganisms including group B Streptococcus β hemolytic (GBS). The study aims to describe the bacterial profil and resistance of GBS to antibiotics. Retrospective study included 640 women at Cotonou suspected of vaginal infections or vaginal discharge during 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2015. Three swabs were collected and analyzed to identify the bacteria by standard biochemical reactions, diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and identification of Trichomonas vaginalis, yeasts and leukocyte count. Antibiogram was performed according to the CA-SFM. Among 640 samples, 502 (78.4%) were positive. The most encountered microorganisms were Candida albicans (37.45%) and GBS (19.92%). GBS sensitivity ranged from 80-100% for augmentin, pefloxacin and nitrofuran. But resistance was observed to netilmicin, tetracyclin, cefoxitin, cephalotin, thiamphenicol, trimethoprim / sulfamethnoxazole between 80-100%. A high percentage of resistance is the result of uncontrolled access to antibiotics and improper antibiotic policy. Routine susceptibility testing will allow to take appropriate treatment of GBS in Benin.

vaginal infections GBS antibiotics Cotonou

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Boskey ER, Cone RA, Whaley KJ, Moench TR: Origins of vaginal acidity: high D/L lactate ratio is consistent with bacteria being the primary source. Hum Reprod 2001, 16(9):1809-1813.
[2]  Boskey ER, Telsch KM, Whaley KJ, Moench TR, Cone RA: Acid production by vaginal flora in vitro is consistent with the rate and extent of vaginal acidification. Infection and immunity 1999, 67(10): 5170-5175.
[3]  Giraldo PC, Araujo ED, Junior JE, do Amaral RL, Passos MR, Goncalves AK: The prevalence of urogenital infections in pregnant women experiencing preterm and full-term labor. Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology 2012, 2012: 878241.
[4]  Fosch S, Fogolin N, Azzaroni E, Pairetti N, Dana L, Minacori H, Tita I, Redona M, Gribaudo G: [Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies]. Revista Argentina de microbiologia 2006, 38(4):202-205.
[5]  Vahidnia A, Tuin H, Bliekendaal H, Spaargaren J: Association of sexually transmitted infections, Candida species, gram-positive flora and perianal flora with bacterial vaginosis. The new microbiologica 2015, 38(4): 559-563.
[6]  Sharma H, Tal R, Clark NA, Segars JH: Microbiota and pelvic inflammatory disease. Seminars in reproductive medicine 2014, 32(1): 43-49.
[7]  Sirota I, Zarek SM, Segars JH: Potential influence of the microbiome on infertility and assisted reproductive technology. Seminars in reproductive medicine 2014, 32(1):35-42.
[8]  Beigi RH, Meyn LA, Moore DM, Krohn MA, Hillier SL: Vaginal yeast colonization in nonpregnant women: a longitudinal study. Obstetrics and gynecology 2004, 104(5 Pt 1): 926-930.
[9]  Alp F, Findik D, Dagi HT, Arslan U, Pekin AT, Yilmaz SA: Screening and genotyping of group B streptococcus in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey. Journal of infection in developing countries 2016, 10(3): 222-226.
[10]  Platt JS, O'Brien WF: Group B streptococcus: prevention of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Obstetrical & gynecological survey 2003, 58(3): 191-196.
[11]  Namavar Jahromi B, Poorarian S, Poorbarfehee S: The prevalence and adverse effects of group B streptococcal colonization during pregnancy. Archives of Iranian medicine 2008, 11(6):654-657.
[12]  Goldenberg RL, Thompson C: The infectious origins of stillbirth. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2003, 189(3): 861-873.
[13]  Plumb J, Clayton G: Group B streptococcus infection: risk and prevention. The practising midwife 2013, 16(7):27-30.
[14]  Onderdonk AB, Lee ML, Lieberman E, Delaney ML, Tuomala RE: Quantitative microbiologic models for preterm delivery. Journal of clinical microbiology 2003, 41(3):1073-1079.
[15]  Forbes BA DF, Alice SW, Baily and Scott's.: Diagnostic microbiology. Mosby Elservier Company 2007, 12th ed. USA:P.867.
[16]  Mackie TJ MJ: Laboratory strategy in the diagnosis of infective syndromes. In: Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP, Simmons A, editors. Practical Medical Microbiology 14th ed Edinburg: Churchill Livingstone 2006:p. 796.
[17]  Allen SD JW, Koneman EW, Schreckenberger PC, Winn WC Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. 6th ed Philadelphia: Lippincott 2005:p. 1443-1535.
[18]  Nugent RP, Krohn MA, Hillier SL: Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation. Journal of clinical microbiology 1991, 29(2):297-301.
[19]  M C: Examination of urogenital specimens. In District Laboratory Practice in Tropical countries. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 2000, Volume 2:93-94.
[20]  CA-SFM: Comité de l’Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. http://wwwsfm-microbiologieorg/UserFiles/files/casfm/CASFM_2012pdf 2012.
[21]  Low N, Chersich MF, Schmidlin K, Egger M, Francis SC, van de Wijgert JH, Hayes RJ, Baeten JM, Brown J, Delany-Moretlwe S et al: Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis. PLoS medicine 2011, 8(2):e1000416.
[22]  Go VF QV, Celentano DD, Moulton LH, Zenilman JM: Prevalence and risk factors for reproductive tractinfections among women in rural vietnam. Souttheast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006, 37:185-189.
[23]  Mathiew R SR, Kalyani M, Jayakumars S, Lai B, Banu S Microbiological profile of vaginosis among women of the reproductive age group, who attended a tertiary care hospital. JCDR 2011, 8(5):1548-1551.
[24]  Bahram A HB, Zohre T: Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and impact of genital hygiene pratices in non-pregnant women in Zanjan, Iran Oman Med J 2009, 24: 288-293.
[25]  Mulu W, Yimer M, Zenebe Y, Abera B: Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC women's health 2015, 15: 42.
[26]  Hibbard LT, Snyder EN, McVann RM: Subgluteal and retropsoal infection in obstetric practice. Obstetrics and gynecology 1972, 39(1):137-150.
[27]  Regan JA, Klebanoff MA, Nugent RP: The epidemiology of group B streptococcal colonization in pregnancy. Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. Obstetrics and gynecology 1991, 77(4): 604-610.
[28]  Mohammadi R, Ataei B: Candidiasis in Pediatrics; Identification and In vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of the Clinical Isolates. Iranian journal of pediatric hematology and oncology 2016, 6(1): 43-51.
[29]  Achkar JM, Fries BC: Candida infections of the genitourinary tract. Clinical microbiology reviews 2010, 23(2):253-273.
[30]  Kiely RA, Cotter L, Mollaghan AM, Cryan B, Coffey A, Lucey B: Emergence of group B Streptococcus serotype IV in women of child-bearing age in Ireland. Epidemiology and infection 2011, 139(2):236-238.
[31]  Motlova J, Strakova L, Urbaskova P, Sak P, Sever T: Vaginal & rectal carriage of Streptococcus agalactiae in the Czech Republic: incidence, serotypes distribution & susceptibility to antibiotics. The Indian journal of medical research 2004, 119 Suppl: 84-87.
[32]  Leclair CM, Hart AE, Goetsch MF, Carpentier H, Jensen JT: Group B streptococcus: prevalence in a non-obstetric population. Journal of lower genital tract disease 2010, 14(3): 162-166.
[33]  Mengist A, Kannan H, Abdissa A: Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of anorectal and vaginal group B Streptococci isolates among pregnant women in Jimma, Ethiopia. BMC research notes 2016, 9: 351.
[34]  Mumtaz S, Ahmad M, Aftab I, Akhtar N, ul Hassan M, Hamid A: Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2008, 20(1): 113-117.
[35]  Abdelaziz ZA, Ibrahim ME, Bilal NE, Hamid ME: Vaginal infections among pregnant women at Omdurman Maternity Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. Journal of infection in developing countries 2014, 8(4):490-497.
[36]  Nasri K, Chehrei A, Manavi MS: Evaluation of vaginal group B streptococcal culture results after digital vaginal examination and its pattern of antibiotic resistance in pregnant women. Iranian journal of reproductive medicine 2013, 11(12):999-1004.
[37]  Ghiasi M, Fazaeli H, Kalhor N, Sheykh-Hasan M, Tabatabaei-Qomi R: Assessing the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among infertile women of Qom city. Iranian journal of microbiology 2014, 6(6): 404-408.
[38]  Ferjani A, Ben Abdallah H, Ben Saida N, Gozzi C, Boukadida J: [Vaginal colonization of the Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant woman in Tunisia: risk factors and susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2006, 99(2): 99-102.
[39]  Al-Sweih N, Jamal M, Kurdia M, Abduljabar R, Rotimi V: Antibiotic susceptibility profile of group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) at the Maternity Hospital, Kuwait. Medical principles and practice: international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre 2005, 14(4): 260-263.
[40]  Dutra VG, Alves VM, Olendzki AN, Dias CA, de Bastos AF, Santos GO, de Amorin EL, Sousa MA, Santos R, Ribeiro PC et al: Streptococcus agalactiae in Brazil: serotype distribution, virulence determinants and antimicrobial susceptibility. BMC infectious diseases 2014, 14:323.
[41]  Capanna F, Emonet SP, Cherkaoui A, Irion O, Schrenzel J, Martinez de Tejada B: Antibiotic resistance patterns among group B Streptococcus isolates: implications for antibiotic prophylaxis for early-onset neonatal sepsis. Swiss medical weekly 2013, 143: w13778.
[42]  Berkowitz K, Regan JA, Greenberg E: Antibiotic resistance patterns of group B streptococci in pregnant women. Journal of clinical microbiology 1990, 28(1):5-7.