American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
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American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2017, 5(2), 94-99
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-5-2-4
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Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Control of Monkeypox Disease: A comprehensive Review

Mahendra Pal1, Fisseha Mengstie1 and Venkataramana Kandi2,

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

2Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, Telengana, India

Pub. Date: May 22, 2017

Cite this paper:
Mahendra Pal, Fisseha Mengstie and Venkataramana Kandi. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Control of Monkeypox Disease: A comprehensive Review. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2017; 5(2):94-99. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-5-2-4


Human monkeypox is an emerging viral zoonotic disease, which is caused by monkey pox virus. The disease occurs mostly in the rain forests of central and western Africa. People living in or near the forested areas may have indirect or low-level exposure, possibly leading to subclinical infection. However, the disease recently emerged in the United States in imported wild rodents from Africa. Monkeypox has a clinical presentation like ordinary forms of smallpox, including flulike symptoms, fever, malaise, back pain, headache, and characteristic rash. In view of the eradication of smallpox, such symptoms in a monkepox endemic region should be carefully diagnosed. Primarily, monkey pox transmission to humans is believed to occur through direct contact with infected animals or possibly by ingestion of inadequately cooked flesh. Infection by inoculation through contact with cutaneous or mucosal lesions on the animal, especially when the skin barrier is compromised secondary to bites, scratches, or other trauma is a possibility. Laboratory diagnosis is imperative because it is clinically indistinguishable from other pox-like illnesses. There are no licensed therapies to treat human monkey pox viral infection; however, the smallpox vaccine can protect against the disease. The discontinuation of general vaccination in the 1980s has given rise to increasing susceptibility to monkey pox virus infection in the human population. This has led to fears that monkey pox virus could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Effective prevention relies on limiting the contact with infected patients or animals and limiting the respiratory exposure to infected patients.

monkeypox public health virus zoonosis

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