American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2015, 3(4), 134-136
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-3-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Seroprevalence of Rubella IgG Antibody among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Lomé, Togo

Salou Mounerou1, 2, , Kolou maléwé2, 3, Dagnra Anoumou Y.1, 2, Nimon Sami1, Akpadza Koffi4 and Prince-David Mireille1, 2

1Service de Microbiologie, CHU Sylvanus Olympio BP 57 Lomé

2Laboratoire de Biologie moléculaire et d’Immunologie (BIOLIM/FSS) Université de lomé BP1515 Lomé

3Service laboratoire CHU Campus

4Service de gynécologie-obstétrique, CHU Sylvanus Olympio BP 57 Lomé

Pub. Date: September 07, 2015

Cite this paper:
Salou Mounerou, Kolou maléwé, Dagnra Anoumou Y., Nimon Sami, Akpadza Koffi and Prince-David Mireille. Seroprevalence of Rubella IgG Antibody among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Lomé, Togo. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2015; 3(4):134-136. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-3-4-3


Background: In non-immune women in the first trimester of pregnancy, Rubella Virus (RV) infection can lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In Togo, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence. Objective: To assess the rate of immunization against Rubella Virus among pregnant women. Methods: Serum samples obtained from 232 pregnant women were tested for rubella-specific IgG antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Overall, the seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibodies was 85% (192/226) [CI 95%: 82.7- 87.3%]. All of the seropositive pregnant women had a protective level (titre > 10 UI/mL). The rates of immunization increased with age and gavidity but differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The high rate of immunization found, in absence of a routine vaccination program supports the presence of an endemic rubella infection in Lomé. To prevent CRS and eliminate RV, free access to vaccination for at least children and women of childbearing age in Togo is advocated.

Rubella Virus seroprevalence pregnancy Africa

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Murray, M. The Rubella Virus. Microbiology and Immunology 3rd Ed, Oxford University Press, 2006, 499-502.
[2]  Huraux JM, Nicolas JC, Agut H, Peigue-Lafueille H, Traité de virologie. ESTEM, Paris, 2003, 489-501.
[3]  Cutts FT, Robertson SE, Diaz-Ortega J- L., Samuel R. Control of rubella and Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in developing countries, part 1: the burden of disease from CRS. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 75 (1): 55-68, 1997.
[4]  Robertson SE, Cutts FT., Samuel R., Diaz-Ortega J-L. Control of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in developing countries, part 2: vaccination against rubella. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 75(1): 69-80, 1997.
[5]  World Health Organization. Global measles and rubella laboratory network- update. Wkly Epidemiol Rec.; 80: 384- 8, 2008.
[6]  Atreya CD, Mohan KV, Kulkarni S. Rubella virus and birth defects: Molecular insights into the viral teratogenesis at the cellular level. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 70: 431–7, 2004.
[7]  De Santis M, Cavaliere AF, Straface G, Caruso A: Rubella infection in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol, 21(4):390–398, 2006
[8]  Robertson, S.E., Featherstone, D.A., Gacic-Dobo, M., Hersh, B.S. Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome: global update. Rev Panam Salud Publica; 14: 306-315, 2003.
[9]  CDC. Achievements in public health: Elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome United States, 1969-2004. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep; 54: 279-282, 2005.
[10]  CDC. Progress toward elimination of measles and prevention of congenital rubella infection, European region, 1990-2004. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep; 54:175-178, 2005.
[11]  Dayan GH, Castillo-Solorzano C, Nava M, Hersh BS, Andrus J, Rodriguez R, et al. Efforts at rubella elimination in the United States: The impact of hemispheric rubella control. Clin Infect Dis.; 43: 158-63, 2006.
[12]  Best, J.M., Enders, G. Laboratory diagnosis of rubella and congenital rubella. In: Banatvala JE, Peckham C (eds). Perspectives in medical virology. Vol. 15. Rubella viruses. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007, 39-78.
[13]  Adewumi, M.O., Olusanya, R.B., Oladunjoye, B.A. and Adeniji, J.A. Rubella IgG antibody among nigerian pregnant women without vaccination history. Afr. J. Cln. Exper. Microbiol. 14(1): 40-44, 2013.
[14]  Obijimi, T. O., Ajetomobi, A. B., Sule,W. F. and Oluwayelu, D. O. Prevalence of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin-G and -M in pregnant women attending two tertiary hospitals in southwestern Nigeria. Afr. J. Cln. Exper. Microbiol. 14(3): 134-139, 2013.
[15]  Tahita Marc C, Hübschen Judith M., Tarnagda Zekiba, Ernest Da, Charpentier Emilie, Kremer Jacques R, Muller Claude P and Ouedraogo Jean B. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Burkina Faso. BMC Infectious Diseases. 13:164, 2013.
[16]  Olatunji Mathew Kolawole, Ekuntoye O. Anjorin, Daniel A. Adekanle, Caroline Folashade Kolawole, and Kabir Adekunle Durowade Seroprevalence of Rubella IgG Antibody in Pregnant Women in Osogbo, Nigeria Int J Prev Med.; 5(3): 287-292, Mar, 2014.
[17]  Zohoun T., Zohoun I., Somda V. Epidémiologie de la rubéole par approche sérologique dans la population du sud de la Republique Populaire du Bénin. Medecine de l’Afrique Noire. ; 35, 602-614, 1988.
[18]  Monjour L., Druilhe P., Huraux JM. Contribution à l’étude de l’épidémiologie de la rubéole en Haute Volta. Acta Tropica. .39:247-252, 1982.
[19]  Faye-Kette YH., Sylla-Koko DJ., Akoua-Koffi GC. Seroepidemiologie de la Rubeole en Côte d’Ivoire distribution géographique. Bulletin de la Soc. Pathol Exot.; 86: 185-187, 1993.
[20]  Ouattara SA., Brettes JP., Aron Y. L’infection rubéolique chez les femmes enceintes à Abdijan (Côte d’Ivoire). Bull. Soc Pathol Exot. 80: 149-154, 1987.
[21]  Bukbuk DN, el Nafaty AU, Obed JY. Prevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in non-immunized pregnant women in Maiduguri, north eastern Nigeria. Cent Eur J Public Health. 10: 21-3, 2002.
[22]  Junaid SA, Akpan KJ, Olabode AO. Sero-survey of rubella IgM antibodies among children in Jos, Nigeria. Virol J.; 8:244, 2011.
[23]  Onakewhor JU, Chiwuzie J. Seroprevalence survey of rubella infection in pregnancy at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract.;14: 2011,140-5.
[24]  Sallam TA, Raja’a YA, Benbrake MS, Al-Shaibani KS, Al-Hababi AA. Prevalence of rubella antibodies among schoolgirls in Sana’a, Republic of Yemen. East Mediterr Health J.;9: 2003, 148-51.