American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2013, 1(3), 38-45
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-1-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Cell Membrane Integrity of Candida Albicans after Different Protocols of Microwave Irradiation

Nara Hellen Campanha1, Janaina Habib Jorge2, , Eunice Teresinha Giampaolo2, Caio Sergio Botta Martins de Oliveira3, Lívia NordiDovigo2, Danielle Cardoso G. Maia4 and Ana Cláudia Pavarina2

1Department of Dentistry, State University of Ponta Grossa - UEPG, Paraná, Brazil

2Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP – Univ. Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil

3General Surgeon Dentist

4Program of Biosciences and Biotechnology applied to Pharmacy (Clinical Analyses), Pharmaceutical Sciences School of Araraquara, UNESP – Univ. EstadualPaulista, São Paulo, Brazil

Pub. Date: May 30, 2013

Cite this paper:
Nara Hellen Campanha, Janaina Habib Jorge, Eunice Teresinha Giampaolo, Caio Sergio Botta Martins de Oliveira, Lívia NordiDovigo, Danielle Cardoso G. Maia and Ana Cláudia Pavarina. Cell Membrane Integrity of Candida Albicans after Different Protocols of Microwave Irradiation. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2013; 1(3):38-45. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-1-3-1


Purpose: To evaluate the ability of low time microwaveexposureto inactivate and damage cell membrane integrity of C. albicans. Materials and Methods: Two 200ml C. albicans suspensions were obtained. Sterile dentures were placed in a beaker containing Experimental (ES) or Control suspensions (CS). ES was microwaved at 650 W for 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 min. Suspensions were optically counted using Methylene blue dye as indicative of membrane-damaged cells; spread on Agar Sabouraud dextrose (ASD) for viability assay; or spectrophotometrically measured at 550nm. Cell-free solutions were submitted to content analyses of protein (Bradford and Pyrogallol red methods); Ca++ (Cresolphthalein Complexone method); DNA (spectrophotometer measurements at 260nm) and K+ (selective electrode technique). Data were analyzed by Student-t test and linear regression (α=0.05). In addition, flowcytometry analysis of Candida cells in suspensionwas performed using propidium iodide. Results: All ES cells demonstrated cell membrane damage at 3, 4 and 5 min,viable cells were nonexistent at 3, 4 and 5 min ES ASD plates and optical density of ES and CS was not significantly differentfor all exposition times. ES cells released highcontents of protein, K+, Ca++ and DNA after 2 min exposition when compared to that of the CSs. Similar results were observed with flow cytometry analysiswith regard to the periodsof microwave exposure. Conclusions: Microwave irradiation inactivated C. albicansafter 3min and damaged cell membrane integrity after 2 min exposition.

microwaves candida albicans denture stomatitis disinfection denture

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 9


[1]  Dovigo LN, Pavarina AC, Ribeiro DG, de Oliveira JA, Vergani CE, Machado AL. Microwave disinfection of complete dentures contaminated in vitro with selected bacteria. J Prosthodont 2009; 18: 611-617.
[2]  Ribeiro DG, Pavarina AC, Dovigo LN, de Oliveira Mima EG, Machado AL, Bagnato VS et al. Photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms present on complete dentures. A clinical investigation. Lasers Med Sci 2012; 27: 161-168.
[3]  Gendreau L, Loewy ZG. Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis.J Prosthodont 2011; 20: 251-260.
[4]  Samaranayake LP, MacFarlane TW. 1990. Oral Candidosis. Wright Butterworth, London, UK.
[5]  Sanitá PV, Vergani CE, Giampaolo ET, Pavarina AC, Machado AL. Growth of Candida species on complete dentures: effect of microwave disinfection. Mycoses 2009; 52: 154-160.
[6]  Dardalhon M, Averbeck D, Berteaud AJ. Studies on possible genetic effects of microwaves in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Rad Environ Biophys 1981; 20: 37-51.
[7]  Najdovski L, Dragas AZ, Kotnik V. The killing activity of microwaves on some non-sporogenic and sporogenic medically important bacterial strains.J Hosp Infect 1991; 19: 239-247.
[8]  Ponne CT, Bartels PV. Interaction of electromagnetic energy with biological material - relation to food processing.RadiatPhysChem 1995; 45: 591-607.
[9]  Atmaca S, Akdag Z, Dasdag S, Celik S. Effect of microwaves on survival of some bacterial strains. ActaMicrobiolImmunol Hun 1996; 43: 371-378.
[10]  Pakhomov AG, Akyel Y, Pakhomova ON, Stuck BE, Murphy MR. Current state and implications of research on biological effects of millimeter waves: a review of the literature. Bioelectromagnetics 1998; 9: 393-413.
[11]  Watanabe N, Kamei S, Ohkubo A, Yamanaka M, Ohsawa S, Makino K, Tokuda K. Urinary protein as measured with a pyrogallol red-molybdate complex, manually and in a Hitachi 726 automated analyzer. ClinChem 1986; 32: 1551-1554.
[12]  Woo I, Rhee I, Park H. Differential damage in bacterial cells by microwave radiation on the basis of cell wall structure. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000; 66: 2243-2247.
[13]  Hong SM, Park JK, Lee YO. Mechanisms of microwave irradiation involved in the destruction of fecal coliforms from biosolids. Water Research 2004; 38: 1615-1625.
[14]  Carroll DE, Lopez A. Lethality of radio-frequency energy upon microorganisms in liquid, buffered, and alcoholic food systems. J Food Sci 1969; 34: 320-324.
[15]  Fitzpatrick JA, Kwao-Paul J, Massey J. Sterilization of bacteria by means of microwave heating. J ClinEng 1978; 3: 44-47.
[16]  Fujikawa H, Ushioda H, Kudo Y. Kinetics of Escherichia coli destruction by microwave irradiation. Appl Environ Microbiol 1992; 58: 920-924.
[17]  Yeo CB, Watson IA, Stewart-Tull DE, Koh VH. Heat transfer analysis of Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel with microwave radiation.J ApplMicrobiol 1999; 87: 396-401.
[18]  Culkin KA, Fung DYC. Destruction of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in microwave-cooked soups.J Milk Food Technol 1975; 38: 8-15.
[19]  Dreyfuss MS, Chipley JR. Comparison of effects of sublethal microwave radiation and conventional heating on the metabolic activity of Staphylococcus aureus. Appl Environ Microbiol 1980; 39: 13-16.
[20]  Rosaspina S, Salvatorelli G, Anzanel D, Bovolenta R. Effect of microwave radiation on Candida albicans. Microbios 1994; 78: 55-59.
[21]  Neppelenbroek KH, Pavarina AC, PalomariSpolidorio DM, SgavioliMassucato EM, Spolidorio LC, Vergani CE. Effectiveness of microwave disinfection of complete dentures on the treatment of Candida-related denture stomatitis.J Oral Rehabil 2008; 35: 836-46.
[22]  Campanha NH, Pavarina AC, Brunetti IL, Vergani CE, Machado AL, Spolidorio DM..Candida albicans inactivation and cell membrane integrity damage by microwave irradiation. Mycoses 2007; 50: 140-147.
[23]  Campanha NH, Pavarina AC, Vergani CE, Machado AL. Effect of microwave sterilization and water storage on the Vickers hardness of acrylic resin denture teeth. J ProsthetDent 2005; 93: 483-487.
[24]  Pavarina AC, Neppelenbroek KH, Guinesi AS, Vergani CE, Machado AL, Giampaolo ET. Effect of microwave disinfection on the flexural strength of hard chairside reline resins. J Dent Res 2005; 33: 741-748.
[25]  Webb BC, Thomas CJ, Whittle T. A 2-year study of Candida-associated denture stomatitis treatment in aged caresubjects.Gerodontology 2005; 22: 168-176.
[26]  Sanita PV, Machado AL, Pavarina AC, Massucato EM, Colombo AL, Vergani CE. Microwave denture disinfection versus nystatin in treating patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and denture stomatitis: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Prosthodont 2012; 25: 232-244.
[27]  Boriollo MFG, Rosa EAR, Bernardo WLC, Spolidorio DMP, Gonçalves RB, Hofling JF.Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis typing of Candida albicans populations isolated from healthy children according to socioeconomic background. Rev Bras Epidemiol 2005; 8: 51-66.
[28]  Harrison Z, Johnson A, Douglas CW. An in vitro study into the effect of a limited range of denture cleaners on surface roughness and removal of Candida albicans from conventional heat-cured acrylic resin denture base material.J Oral Rehabil2004; 31: 460-467.
[29]  Neppelenbroek KH, Pavarina AC, Spolidorio DMP, Vergani CE, Mima EG, Machado AL. Effectiveness of microwave sterilization on three hard chairside reline resins. Int J Prosthodont 2003; 16: 616-620.
[30]  Silva MM, Vergani CE, Giampaolo ET, Neppelenbroek KH, Spolidorio DM, Machado AL. Effectiveness of microwave irradiation on the disinfection of complete dentures. Int J Prosthodont 2006; 19: 288-293.
[31]  Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antifungal effects of Melaleucaalternifolia (tea tree) oil and its components on Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 53: 1081-1085.
[32]  Chan EC, Iugovaz I, Siboo R, Bilyk M, Barolet R, Amsel R, Wooley C, Klitorinos A. Comparison of two popular methods for removal and killing of bacteria from dentures. J Can Dent Assoc 1991; 57: 937-939.
[33]  Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976; 72: 248-254.
[34]  Kang HP, Scott MG, Joe BN, Narra V, Heiken J, Parvin CA. Model for predicting the impact of gadolinium on plasma calcium measured by the o-cresolphthalein method. Clinical Chemistry 2004; 50: 741-746.
[35]  Wible JH Jr, Hynes MR. Measurement of serum calcium concentration after administration of gadoversetamide in dogs. Radiology 2004; 233: 158-164.
[36]  Smith DC. The cleansing of dentures. Dent Pract Dent Rec 1966; 17: 39-43.
[37]  Mima EG, Pavarina AC, Neppelenbroek KH, Vergani CE, Spolidorio DM, Machado AL. Effect of different exposure times on microwave irradiation on the disinfection of a hard chairside reline resin. J Prosthodont2008; 17: 312-317.
[38]  Basso MF, Giampaolo ET, Vergani CE, Machado AL, Pavarina AC, Compagnoni MA. Influence of microwave disinfection on the linear dimensional stability of complete dentures: a clinical study. Int J Prosthodont 2010; 23: 318-320.
[39]  Khalil H, Villota R. Comparative study on injury and recovery of staphylococcus aureus using microwave and conventional heating. J Food Prot 1988; 51: 181-186.
[40]  Maniatis T, Sambrook J, Fritsch EF. 1989. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
[41]  Bezbradica D, Mijin D, Mihailovic M, Knezevic-Jugovic Z. Microwave-assisted immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa on Eupergit supports. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 2009; 84: 1642-1648.
[42]  Lore MB, Heimbuch BK, Brown TL, Wander JD, Hinrichs SH. Effectiveness of three decontamination treatments against influenza virus applied to filtering face piece respirators. Ann OccupHyg 2012; 56: 92-101.
[43]  Makawana JA, Mungra DC, Patel MP, Patel RG. Microwave assisted synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of new fused pyran derivatives bearing 2-morpholinoquinoline nucleus. Bioorg Med ChemLett 2011; 21: 6166-6169.
[44]  Brondani M, Samim F, Feng H. A conventional microwave oven for denture cleaning: a critical review. Gerodontology 2012; 29(2): e6-15.
[45]  Corelli JC, Gutmann RJ, Kohazi S, Levy J. Effects of 2.6-4.0 GHz microwave radiation on E-coli B. J Microw Power 1977; 12: 141-144.
[46]  Parker LN. Thyroid suppression and adrenomedullary activation by low-intensity microwave radiation. Am J Physiol 1973; 224:1388-1390.
[47]  Hamouda IM, Ahmed SA. Effect of microwave disinfection on mechanical properties of denture base acrylic resin.J MechBehav Biomed Mater 2010; 3: 480-487.
[48]  Senna PM, Da Silva WJ, Del BelCury AA. Denture disinfection by microwave energy: influence of Candida albicans biofilm. Gerodontology2012; 29(2): e186-191.
[49]  Pina-Vaz C, Sansonetty F, Rodrigues AG, et al. Cytometric approach for rapid evaluation of susceptibility of Candida strains to antifungals. ClinMicrobiol Infect 2001; 7: 609-18.
[50]  Ahmad A, Khan A, Kumar P, Bhatt RP, Manzoor N.Antifungal activity of Coriarianepalensis essential oil by disrupting ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane integrity against Candida. Yeast. 2011; 28(8):611-7.
[51]  Hawser SP, Douglas LJ. Resistance of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother1995; 39: 2128-2131.