American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2015, 3(1), 38-64
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-3-1-6
Open AccessArticle

Epidemiology, Disease Transmission and Pathogenesis Caused by JE Virus: Its Prevention and Control

Ravi Kant Upadhyay1,

1Department of Zoology, D D U Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, U.P. India

Pub. Date: February 26, 2015

Cite this paper:
Ravi Kant Upadhyay. Epidemiology, Disease Transmission and Pathogenesis Caused by JE Virus: Its Prevention and Control. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2015; 3(1):38-64. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-3-1-6


In the present review article epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis, disease incidences and its control measures have been described in detail. Among important reasons of JE outbreak are registered demographic clustering, ecological imbalance, and insecticide resistance in target mosquito species, poor economy, lack of socio cultural environment and timely therapeutics. Other complex reasons are negative anthropogenic activities like mixed agro-pig farming practices, paddy farming and sanitation. Water contamination led to the spillovers of the virus from its wildlife reservoir into pig population as well as other vertebrate hosts. This article also explains emergence of new mutant variants/ new genotypes /ecological strains of JE virus and its spread in endemic to non-endemic areas. Due to re-circulation of virus among various hosts and insect vectors, disease is causing vey high mortality and morbidity in rural and sub-urban endemic areas. In addition, presence of revertants in overlapping generations of virus joins and re-organizes distanced epidemiology in the area. It has led to induction of high sero-conversion rate in patients. Present review aims to explain all the reasons of JE epidemics, and justify need of proper surveillance, rapid diagnosis, long term safer immunization, vector control and socio-clinical management of JE infection. This article emphasized an urgent need of potential immunization, implementation of planning to improve economic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions. It also strongly indicates need of regular surveillance and immunization of JE affected population to maintain high therapeutic standards to control JE epidemics.

JE virus endemic diseases epidemiology disease transmission vector vertebrate hosts immunization eco-17 climate

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Go, Y.Y., Balasuriya, U.B., Lee, C.K., (2014).Zoonotic encephalitides caused by arboviruses: transmission and epidemiology of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Clin Exp Vaccine Res.; Vol. 3 no.1, pp. 58-77.
[2]  Pujhari, S.K., Prabhakar, S., Ratho, R.K., Modi, M., Sharma, M., Mishra, B., (2011).A novel mutation (S227T) in domain II of the envelope gene of Japanese encephalitis virus circulating in North India. Epidemiol Infect; Vol. 139, no.6, pp.849-56.
[3]  Li, S., Fang, M., Zhou, B., Ni, H., Shen, Q., Zhang, H., Han, Y., Yin, J., Chang, W., Xu, G., Cao, G., (2011). Simultaneous detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus by a combined reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. Virol J; Vol. 8, pp.360.
[4]  Kabilan, L., (2004).Control of Japanese encephalitis in India: a reality. Indian J Pediatr ; Vol. 71, no.8, pp.707-12.
[5]  Arai, S., Matsunaga, Y., Takasaki, T., Tanaka-Taya, K., Taniguchi, K., Okabe, N., Kurane, I., (2008). Vaccine Preventable Diseases Surveillance Program of Japan. japanese encephalitis: surveillance and elimination effort in Japan from 1982 to 2004. Jpn J Infect Dis ; Vol. 61, no.5, pp.333-8.
[6]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013).Use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in children: recommendations of the advisory on immunization practices, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Vol. 62, no. 45, pp.898-900,
[7]  Impoinvil, D.E., Ooi, M.H., Diggle, P.J., Caminade, C., Cardosa, M.J., Morse, A.P., Baylis, M., Solomon, T., (2013).The effect of vaccination coverage and climate on Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak, Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; Vol. 7, no.8, pp.2334.
[8]  Chua, K.B., (2010).Risk factors, prevention and communication strategy during Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia. Malays J Pathol. Vol. 32, no.2, pp.75-80.
[9]  Borah, J., Dutta, P., Khan, S.A., Mahanta, J., (2013).Association of weather and anthropogenic factors for transmission of Japanese encephalitis in an endemic area of India. Ecohealth; Vol. 10, no. 2, pp.129-36.
[10]  Rodhain, F., (2010). Japanese encephalitis: a fast-changing viral disease. Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; Vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 135-54.
[11]  Gould, E.A., Solomon, T., Mackenzie, J.S., (2008).Does antiviral therapy have a role in the control of Japanese encephalitis? Antiviral Res; Vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 140-9.
[12]  Witt, C.J., Richards, A.L., Masuoka, P.M., Foley, D.H., Buczak, A.L., Musila, L.A., 2011The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks. BMC Public Health. Vol. 11 no.2, pp.S10.
[13]  Samuel, P.P., Muniaraj, M., Thenmozhi, V., Tyagi, B.K., (2013). Entomo-virological study of a suspected Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India. Indian J Med Res ; Vol. 137, no. 5, pp.991-2.
[14]  Mackenzie, J.S., Williams, D.T., (2009).The zoonotic flaviviruses of southern, south-eastern and eastern Asia, and Australasia: the potential for emergent viruses. Zoonoses Public Health; Vol.56, no.6-7, pp.338-56.
[15]  Impoinvil, D.E., Solomon, T., Schluter, W.W., Rayamajhi, A., Bichha, R.P., Shakya, G., Caminade C., Baylis, M., (2011).The spatial heterogeneity between Japanese encephalitis incidence distribution and environmental variables in Nepal. PLoS One. Vol.6, no.7, pp. e22192,
[16]  Miller, R.H., Masuoka, P., Klein, T.A., Kim, H.C., Somer, T., Grieco, J., (2012). Ecological niche modeling to estimate the distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus in Asia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; Vol. 6, no.6, pp. 1678.
[17]  Dash, A.P., Bhatia, R., Sunyoto, T., Mourya,D.T., (2013).Emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in Southeast Asia. J Vector Borne Dis: Vol.50, no.2, pp.77-84.
[18]  Dumre, S.P., Shakya, G., Na-Bangchang, K., Eursitthichai, V., Rudi Grams, H., Upreti, S.R., Ghimire, P., KC, K., Nisalak, A., Gibbons, R.V., Fernandez, S., (2013).Dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus epidemiological shifts in Nepal: a case of opposing trends. Am J Trop Med Hyg; Vol. 88, no.4, pp.677-80.
[19]  Tang, X.Y., Kang, K., Shang, S.Y., Xu, C., Li, X.L., Ma, H.X., Chen, H.M., Xu, B.L., (2012). Epidemic characteristics and viral antibody level among healthy people of Japanese B encephalitis in Henan province in 2010. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi; Vol.46, no.10, pp.888-91.
[20]  Griffiths, M.J., Lemon, J.V., Rayamajhi, A., Poudel, P., Shrestha, P., Srivastav, V., Kneen,R., (2013). Medina-Lara,A., Singh, R.R., Solomon,T., The functional, social and economic impact of acute encephalitis syndrome in Nepal--a longitudinal follow-up study, PLoS Negl Trop Dis. Vol.7, no. (9), pp.e2383.
[21]  Gould, E.A., Solomon, T., Mackenzie, J.S., (2008).Does antiviral therapy have a role in the control of Japanese encephalitis? Antiviral Res; Vol.78, no.1, pp.140-9.
[22]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013).Use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in children: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; Vol. 62, no.45, pp.898-900.
[23]  Tyler, K.L., (2009). Emerging viral infections of the central nervous system: part 1. Arch Neurol.; Vol. 66, no.8, pp.939-48.
[24]  Hiscox, A., Winter, C.H., Vongphrachanh, P., Sisouk, T., Somoulay, V., Phompida, S., Kaul,S., Sananikhom, P., Nguyen, T.Y., Paul, R.E., Brey, P., Bryant, J.E., (2010).Serological investigations of flavivirus prevalence in Khammouane Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2007-2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.83. no.5,pp.1166-9.
[25]  Erlanger, T.E., Weiss, S., Keiser, J., Utzinger, J., Weidenmayer, K., (2009). Past, present, and future of Japanese encephalitis, Emerg Infect Dis, vol.15, no.1, pp.1-7.
[26]  Nett, R.J., Campbell, G.L., Reisen, W.K., (2009).Potential for the emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus in California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; Vol. 9, no. 5, pp.511-7.
[27]  Masuoka, P., Klein, T.A., Kim, H.C., Claborn, D.M., Achee, N., Andre, R., Chamberlin J., Small, J., Anyamba, A., Lee, D.K., Yi, S.H., Sardelis, M., Ju, Y.R., Grieco, J., (2010). Modeling the distribution of Culex tritaeniorhynchus to predict Japanese encephalitis distribution in the Republic of Korea, Geospat Health. Vol.5, no.1, pp. 45-57.
[28]  Verma, R., Praharaj, H.N., (2012). Bilateral facial palsy as a manifestation of Japanese encephalitis. BMJ Case Rep.
[29]  Arunachalam, N., Samuel, P.P., Hiriyan, J., Rajendran, R., Dash, A.P., (2005).Short report: observations on the multiple feeding behavior of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: culicidae), the vector of Japanese encephalitis in Kerala in southern India. Am J Trop Med Hyg, Vol.72, no.2, pp.198-200.
[30]  Mitchell, C.J., Savage, H.M., Smith, G.C., Flood, S.P., Castro, L.T., Roppul, M., (1993). Japanese encephalitis on Saipan: a survey of suspected mosquito vectors. Am J Trop Med Hyg ; Vol. 48, no. 4, pp.585-90.
[31]  Hasegawa, M., Tuno, N., Yen, N.T., Nam, V.S., Takagi, M., (2008).Influence of the distribution of host species on adult abundance of Japanese encephalitis vectors Culex vishnui subgroup and Culex gelidus in a rice-cultivating village in northern Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg ; Vol. 78, no.1, pp.159-68.
[32]  Takhampunya, R., Kim, H.C., Tippayachai, B., Kengluecha, A., Klein, T.A., Lee, W.J., Grieco, J., Evans, B.P., (2011). Emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype V in the Republic of Korea. Virol J; Vol. 8, pp.449.
[33]  Samuel, P.P., Arunachalam, N., Rajendran, R., Leo, S.V., Ayanar, K., Balasubramaniam, R., Tyagi, B.K., (2010). Temporal variation in the susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Japanese encephalitis virus in an endemic area of Tamil Nadu, South India. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; Vol. 10, no.10, pp.1003-8.
[34]  Partridge, J., Ghimire, P., Sedai, T., Bista, M.B., (2007).Banerjee, M., Endemic Japanese encephalitis in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg; Vol. 77, no.6, pp.1146-9.
[35]  Gupta, N., Chatterjee, K., Karmakar, S., Jain, S.K., Venkatesh, S., Lal, S., Bellary, (2008).India achieves negligible case fatality due to Japanese encephalitis despite no vaccination: an outbreak investigation in 2004. Indian J Pediatr. Vol. 75, no. 1, pp.31-7.
[36]  Oya, A., (2007).Kurane IJapanese encephalitis for a reference to international travelers. J Travel Med.; Vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 259-68.
[37]  Lindahl, J.F., Ståhl, K., Chirico, J., Boqvist, S., Thu, H.T., Magnusson, U., (2013).Circulation of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs and mosquito vectors within Can Tho city, Vietnam. PLoS Negl Trop Dis; Vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 153.
[38]  Joshi, R., Kalantri, S.P., Reingold, A., Colford Jr.J.M., (2012). Changing landscape of acute encephalitis syndrome in India: a systematic review. Natl Med J India; Vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 212-20.
[39]  Le Flohic, G., Porphyre, V., Barbazan, P., Gonzalez, J.P., (2013).Review of climate, landscape, and viral genetics as drivers of the Japanese encephalitis virus ecology. PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; Vol. 7, no. 9 pp. e2208.
[40]  Borah, J., Dutta, P., Khan, S.A., Mahanta, J., (2013).Association of weather and anthropogenic factors for transmission of Japanese encephalitis in an endemic area of India. Ecohealth; Vol.10, no. 2. Pp.129-36.
[41]  Feng, Y., Fu, S., Zhang, H., Petersen, L.R., Zhang, B., Gao, X., Yang, W., Zhang, Y., Dao, B., Li, K., Li, N., Yin, Z., Liu, Y., Nasci, R., Wang, H., Liang, G., (2013). High incidence of Japanese encephalitis, southern China. Emerg Infect Dis; Vol. 19, no. 4, pp.672-3.
[42]  Kline, K., McCarthy, J.S., Pearson, M., Loukas, A., Hotez, P.J., (2013). Neglected tropical diseases of Oceania: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis; Vol. 7, no. 1, pp.:e1755.
[43]  Spissu, N., Panichi G., Montisci, A., Fiore, F., (2013). West Nile Virus outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, in 2011. J Infect Dev Ctries; Vol. 7, no. 1, pp.6-9.
[44]  Nemeth N., Bosco-Lauth A., Oesterle P., Kohler D., Bowen R.. (2012).North American birds as potential amplifying hosts of Japanese encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg; Vol. 87, no.4, pp. 760-7.
[45]  Conlan J.V., Vongxay K., Jarman R.G., Gibbons R.V., Lunt R.A., Fenwick S., Thompson R.C., Blacksell.S.D. (2012). Serologic study of pig-associated viral zoonoses in Laos. Am J Trop Med Hyg; Vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1077-84.
[46]  Yeh J.Y., Park J.Y., Ostlund E.N. (2011). Serologic evidence of West Nile Virus in wild ducks captured in major inland resting sites for migratory waterfowl in South Korea. Vet Microbiol; Vol.154, no.1-2, pp. 96-103.
[47]  May F.J., Davis C.T., Tesh R.B., Barrett A.D.. (2011). Phylogeography of West Nile virus: from the cradle of evolution in Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. J Virol ; Vol.85, no. 6, pp. 2964-74.
[48]  Ciota A.T., Koch E.M., Willsey G.G., Davis L.J., Jerzak G.V., Ehrbar D.J., Wilke C.O., Kramer L.D. (2011). Temporal and spatial alterations in mutant swarm size of St. Louis encephalitis virus in mosquito hosts. Infect Genet Evol; Vol. 11, no.2, pp. 460-8.
[49]  van den Hurk, A.F. Hall-Mendelin S., Johansen C.A., Warrilow D., Ritchie S.A.. (2012). Evolution of mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance systems in Australia. J Biomed Biotechnol; 2012:325659.
[50]  Konishi E., Kitai Y., Nishimura K., Harada S.. (2012)Follow-up survey of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in Kumamoto Prefecture, South-West Japan: status during 2009-2011. Jpn J Infect Dis; Vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 448-50.
[51]  Carlton E.J., Liang S., McDowell J.Z., H. Li, Luo W., Remais J.V.. (2012). Regional disparities in the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation in China. Bull World Health Organ; Vol. 90, no.8, pp. 578-87.
[52]  Teng M., Luo J., Fan J.M., Chen L., Wang X.T., Yao W., Wang C.Q., Zhang G.P.. (2013).Molecular characterization of Japanese encephalitis viruses circulating in pigs and mosquitoes on pig farms in the Chinese province of Henan.Virus Genes;Vol. 46, no.1,pp.170-4.
[53]  Mishra N., Kalaiyarasu S., Nagarajan S., Rao M.V., George A., Sridevi R., Behera S.P., Dubey S.C., McCracken T., Newman S.H.. (2012). Serological evidence of West Nile virus infection in wild migratory and resident water birds in Eastern and Northern India. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; Vol. 35, no.6, pp.591-8.
[54]  Kurane I., Shibasaki K., Kotaki A., Hijioka Y., Takasaki T.. (2013).The effect of precipitation on the transmission of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus in nature: a complex effect on antibody-positive rate to JE virus in sentinel pigs. Int J Environ Res Public Health; Vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1831-44.
[55]  Schuster G., Ebert E.E., Stevenson M.A., Corner R.J., Johansen C.A.. (2011). Application of satellite precipitation data to analyse and model arbovirus activity in the tropics. Int J Health Geogr; Vol.10, pp. 8.
[56]  Schuh J. A., Melissa J.. Ward, Andrew J., Leigh Brown, and Alan D.T. Barrett, (2013).Phylogeography of Japanese Encephalitis Virus: Genotype Is Associated with Climate PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. e2411.
[57]  Li M.H., Fu S.H., Chen W.X., Wang H.Y., Guo Y.H., (2011).Genotype v Japanese encephalitis virus is emerging, PLoS Neglected Trop D vol.5, pp. e1231.
[58]  Morita K., (2009).Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in East Asia. Vaccine, 27, pp. 7131-7132.
[59]  Sarkar A., Banik A., Pathak B.K., Mukhopadhyay S.K., and Chatterjee S., (2013). Envelope protein gene based molecular characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus clinical isolates from West Bengal, India: a comparative approach with respect to SA14-14-2 live attenuated vaccine strain, BMC Infect Dis. Vol.13, no. 1, pp. 368.
[60]  Li-Juan Xu, Ruixi Liu, Sheng Ye, Hua Ling and Chao-Min Zhu (2013).Genomic analysis of a newly isolated of Japanese encephalitis virus strain, CQ11-66, from a pediatric patient in China. Virology Journal, vol.10, no. 101.
[61]  A., Pyke, D Williams, Nisbet D., (2001).The appearance of a second genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Australasian region. Am J Trop Med Hyg vol.65, pp.747-753.
[62]  Wang H, Li Y, Liang X, Liang G, (2009).Japanese encephalitis in mainland china. Japan J Infect Dis, vol. 62, pp. 331-336.
[63]  Tiwari S.C., Thenmozhi V., Arunachalam N., Samuel P.P, Tyagi B.K., (2008). Desiccated vector mosquitoes used for surveillance of Japanese encephalitis virus activity in endemic southern India. Trop. Med Int Health, Vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 289-290.
[64]  Wang L., Fu S., Zhang H., Ye X., Yu D., Deng Z., Yuan J., Zhai Y., Li M., Lv Z., Chen W., Jiang H., Gao X., Cao Y., Wang H., Tang Q., Liang G.. (2010). Identification and isolation of Genotype-I Japanese encephalitis virus from encephalitis patients. Virol J; Vol.7, pp.345.
[65]  Dhillon G.P., Raina V.K. (2008).Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in context with Indian scenario. J Indian Med Assoc ; Vol.106, no.10, pp.660-3.
[66]  Alera M.T., Velasco J.M., Ypil-Cardenas, C.A. Jarman R.G., Nisalak A.N., Thaisomboonsuk B., Gibbons R.V., Dimaano E.M., Yoon I.K. (2013).Hospital-based surveillance of Japanese encephalitis at a tertiary hospital in Manila. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health.;Vol. 44, no.5, pp. 791-8.
[67]  Yen N.T., Duffy M.R., Hong N.M., Hien N.T., Fischer M., Hills S.L. 2010).Surveillance for Japanese encephalitis in Vietnam, 1998-2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg.;Vol. 83, no.4, pp.816-9.
[68]  Hu Q., Chen B., Zhu Z., J Tian., Zhou Y., Zhang X., Zheng X.. (2013).Recurrence of Japanese encephalitis epidemic in Wuhan, China, 2009-2010. PLoS One; Vol. 8, no. 1, pp. e52687.
[69]  Wang X.X., Jiang J.X., Wang F., Zhang X.S., Yu D.S., Wang P., Zhao H., Li H. (2012). Analysis on epidemiology and the main clinical symptoms of viral encephalitis in Gansu, 2009-2011. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi; Vol 46, no.12, pp.1099-102.
[70]  Zhang J.K., Lin S.H., Zhou X.Y., Chen D.L., Fu S.H., Liu X.C., Yuan W., Cao Y.O., Wang H.Y., Li W., Hu M., Liang G.D.. (2012). Japanese encephalitis virus with genotype I is predominant in Sichuan Province. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi; Vol.26, no.4, pp.241-5.
[71]  Borah J., Dutta P., Khan S.A., Mahanta J.. (2012). Epidemiological concordance of Japanese encephalitis virus infection among mosquito vectors, amplifying hosts and humans in India. Epidemiol Infect; Vol.141, no.1, pp.74-80.
[72]  Hoshino A., Saitoh M., Oka A., Okumura A., Kubota M., Saito Y., Takanashi J., Hirose S., Yamagata T., Yamanouchi H., Mizuguchi M.. (2011). Epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan, with emphasis on the association of viruses and syndromes. Brain Dev; Vol. 34, no.5, pp.337-43.
[73]  Baba K., Okuno Y., Tanaka-Taya K., Okabe N.. (2011).Immunization coverage and natural infection rates of vaccine-preventable diseases among children by questionnaire survey in 2005 in Japan. Vaccine; Vol.29, no.16, pp.3089-92.
[74]  Okabe N., Y Tada., Yasui Y.. (2011). Epidemiology of acute encephalitis or encephalopathy in Japan. Nihon Rinsho ; Vol. 69, no.3, pp.411-6.
[75]  García-Bocanegra I., Busquets N., Napp S., Alba S., Zorrilla I., Villalba R., Arenas (2011). A Sero survey of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex in birds from Andalusia, southern Spain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis; Vol. 11, no.8, pp.1107-13.
[76]  Nishiyama I., Ohtsuka Y., Tsuda T., Kobayashi K., Inoue H., Narahara K., Shiraga H., Kimura T., Ogawa M., Terasaki T., Ono H., Takata T.. (2011).An epidemiological study of children with status epilepticus in Okayama, Japan: incidence, etiologies, and outcomes. Epilepsy Res; Vol.96, no. 1-2, pp.89-95.
[77]  Rascalou G., Pontier D., Menu F., Gourbière S.. (2012).Emergence and prevalence of human vector-borne diseases in sink vector populations. PLoS One; Vol. 7, no.5, :e36858.
[78]  Coffey L.L., Page B.L., Greninger A.L., Herring B.L., Russell R.C., Doggett S.L., Haniotis J., Wang C., Deng X., Delwart E.L.., (2014).Enhanced arbovirus surveillance with deep sequencing: Identification of novel rhabdoviruses and bunyaviruses in Australian mosquitoes. Virology; Vol. 448, pp.146-58.
[79]  Upadhyay R.K., (2013).Japanese Encephalitis virus generated neurovirulence, antigenicity and host immune responses, ISRN Virology, Vol. 2013, ID830396.
[80]  Wang S., Luo X., Wei W., Zheng Y., Dou Y., Cai X.. (2013).Calculation of evolutionary correlation between individual genes and full-length genome: a method useful for choosing phylogenetic markers for molecular epidemiology. PLoS One.;Vol. 8, no.12:e81106.
[81]  Upadhyay R.K. (2013). Biomarkers in Japanese encephalitis: a review. Biomed Res Int. 2013:591290.
[82]  Koga M.. (2013).Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy. Nihon Rinsho ; Vol. 71, no.5, pp.898-903.
[83]  Sambri V., Capobianchi M., Charrel R, Fyodorova M., Gaibani P., Gould E., Niedrig M., Papa A., Pierro A., Rossini G., Varani S., Vocale C., Landini M.P., (2013). West Nile virus in Europe: emergence, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Microbiol Infect;Vol.19, no.8, pp.699-704.
[84]  Saxena S.K., Mishra N., Saxena R., Singh M., Mathur A.. (2009).Trend of Japanese encephalitis in North India: evidence from thirty-eight acute encephalitis cases and appraisal of niceties. J Infect Dev Ctries ; Vol.3, no.7, pp.517-30.
[85]  OlsenS.J., Supawat K., Campbell A.P., Anantapreecha S., LiamsuwanS., Tunlayadechanont S., Visudtibhan A., Lupthikulthum S., (2010). Japanese encephalitis virus remains an important cause of encephalitis in Thailand. Int J Infect Dis; Vol.14, no.10,:e888-92.
[86]  Pradier S., Lecollinet S., Leblond A. (2012).West Nile virus epidemiology and factors triggering change in its distribution in Europe. Rev Sci Tech;Vol. 31, no.3, pp.829-44.
[87]  An Z.J., Ma Y.J., Bo F., Huang H., Zhang S.T. (2007). Analysis on surveillance data regarding the level of Japanese encephalitis antibody in Heilongjiang. province, 2006. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; Vol. 28, no.12, pp.1186-9.
[88]  Kakkar M., Rogawski E.T., Abbas S.S., Chaturvedi S., Dhole T.N., Hossain S.S., Krishnan S.K.. (2013). Acute encephalitis syndrome surveillance, Kushinagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2011-2012. Emerg Infect Dis; Vol.19, no.9, pp.1361-7.
[89]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012).Japanese encephalitis surveillance and immunization--Asia and the Western Pacific, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep: Vol. 62, no.33, pp. 658-62.
[90]  MayerC.A., Neilson A.A. (2010).. Japanese encephalitis - prevention in travelers. Aust Fam Physician : Vol. 39, no.6, pp.389-94.
[91]  Misra U.K., Kalita J. (2010). Spectrum of movement disorders in encephalitis. J Neurol; Vol. 257, no. 12, pp.2052-8.
[92]  Slater-Handshy T., Droll D.A., Fan X., Di Bisceglie, A.M. and Chambers T.J. (2004).HCV E2 glycoprotein: mutagenesis of N-linked glycosylation sites and its effects on E2 expression and processing. Virology. Vol. 319, no. 1, pp. 36-48.
[93]  Ayukawa R, Fujimoto H, Ayabe M, Shoji H, Matsui R, Iwata Y, Fukuda H, Ochi K, Noda K, Ono Y, Sakai K, Takehisa Y, Yasui K. (2004).An unexpected outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the Chugoku district of Japan, 2002, Jpn J Infect Dis. Vol.57, no. 2, pp. 63-6.
[94]  Gupta N., Lomash V., Rao P.V., (2010). Expression profile of Japanese encephalitis virus induced neuroinflammation and its implication in disease severity. J Clin Virol; Vol.49, no.1, pp.4-10.
[95]  Bhatt G.C., Bondre V.P., Sapkal G.N., Sharma T., Kumar S., Gore M.M., Kushwaha K.P., Rathi A.K.. (2012). Changing clinico-laboratory profile of encephalitis patients in the eastern Uttar Pradesh region of India. Trop Doct ; Vol. 42, no.2, pp.106-8.
[96]  Buchy P., VoV.L., Bui K.T., Trinh T.X., Glaziou P., Le T.T., Le V.L., Bui T.C.. (2005).Secondary dengue virus type 4 infections in Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. ; Vol. 36, no.1, pp.178-85.
[97]  Sarkari N.B., Thacker A.K., Barthwal S.P., Mishra V.K., Prapann S., Srivastava D., Sarkari M., (2012). Japanese encephalitis (JE). Part I: clinical profile of 1,282 adult acute cases of four epidemics. J Neurol; Vol. 259, no. 1, pp.47-57.
[98]  Dung N.M., Turtle L., Chong W.K., Mai N.T., Thao T.T., Thuy T.T., Kneen R., Phu N.H., Wills B., Farrar J., Das K., Solomon T., (2009). An evaluation of the usefulness of neuroimaging for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis. J Neurol; Vol. 256, no. 12, pp.2052-60.
[99]  Hossain M.J., Gurley E.S., Montgomery S., Petersen L., Sejvar J., Fischer M., Panella A., Powers A.M., Nahar N., Uddin A.K., Rahman M.E., Ekram A.R., Luby S.P., Breiman R.F.. (2010).Hospital-based surveillance for Japanese encephalitis at four sites in Bangladesh, 2003-2005. Am J Trop Med Hyg ; Vol. 82, no.2, pp.344-9,
[100]  Sarkari N.B., Thacker A.K., Barthwal S.P., Mishra V.K., Prapann S., Srivastava D., Sarkari M., (2012). Japanese encephalitis (JE) part II: 14 years' follow-up of survivors. J Neurol; Vol. 259, no. 1, pp.58-69.
[101]  Misra U.K., Tan C.T., Kalita J.. (2008). Viral encephalitis and epilepsy. Epilepsia; Vol.49, Suppl 6, pp.13-8.
[102]  Gunasekaran P., Kaveri K., Arunagiri K., Mohana S., Kiruba R., Kumar V.S., Padmapriya P., Suresh Babu B.V., Sheriff. A.K. Japanese encephalitis in Tamil Nadu (2007-2009). (2012). Indian J Med Res; Vol. 135, no.5, pp.680-2.
[103]  Michael B.D., Solomon T.. (2012). Seizures and encephalitis: clinical features, management, and potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Epilepsia; Vol. 53 Suppl 4, pp.63-71.
[104]  Kaur R., Agarwal C.S., Das D.. (2002).An investigation into the JE epidemic of 2000 in Upper Assam--a perspective study. J Commun Dis; Vol. 34, no.2, pp.135-45.
[105]  T. Solomon, Thao T.T., Lewthwaite P., Ooi M.H., Kneen R., Dung N.M., N. White. (2008).A cohort study to assess the new WHO Japanese encephalitis surveillance standards. Bull World Health Organ; Vol. 86, no.3, pp.178-86.
[106]  Sarkar A, Taraphdar D., Mukhopadhyay S.K., Chakrabarti S., Chatterjee S., (2011). Serological and molecular diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis reveals and increasing public health problem in the state of West Bengal, India, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. Vol.106, no.1, pp. 15-9.
[107]  Handique S.K., Das R.R., Saharia B., Das P., Buragohain R., P. Saikia. (2008). Coinfection of Japanese encephalitis with neurocysticercosis: an imaging study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; Vol. 29, no.1, pp.170-5.
[108]  Natividad F.F., Daroy M.L., Alonzo M.T., Matias, R.R. Suarez L.A., Inoue S., (2006). Use of IgM-capture ELISA for confirmation of Japanese encephalitis infections in the Philippines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health; Vol. 37, no. 3, pp.136-9.
[109]  MurataR., HashiguchiK., YoshiiK., KariwaH., NakajimaK., Ivanov L.I., LeonovaG.N., Takashima I. (2011). Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in wild birds in far eastern Russia using a focus reduction neutralization test. Am J Trop Med Hyg ; Vol.84, no. 3, pp.461-5.
[110]  Pant. G.R. (2006).A serological survey of pigs, horses, and ducks in Nepal for evidence of infection with Japanese encephalitis virus. Ann N Y Acad Sci; Vol. 1081, pp.124-9.
[111]  Zuo S., Zhao Q., Guo X., Zhou H., Cao W., J. Zhang. (2014). Detection of Quang Binh virus from mosquitoes in China. Virus Res; Vol. 180, pp.31-8.
[112]  Stiasny K., Aberle S.W., Heinz F.X.. Retrospective identification of human cases of West Nile virus infection in Austria (2009 to 2010) by serological differentiation from Usutu and other flavivirus infections. Euro Surveill ; Vol. 18, no.43, pp.20614, (2013).
[113]  Chheng K., Carter M.J., Emary K., Chanpheaktra N., Moore C.E., Stoesser N., Putchhat H., et al.,, (2013). A prospective study of the causes of febrile illness requiring hospitalization in children in Cambodia. PLoS One ; Vol.8 no.4, :pp. e60634.
[114]  Kang X., Li Y., Fan L., Lin F., Wei J., Zhu X., Hu Y., Li J., Chang G., Zhu Q., Liu H., Yang Y.. (2012). Development of an ELISA-array for simultaneous detection of five encephalitis viruses. Virol J; Vol. 9, pp.56.
[115]  Zheng Y., Li M., Wang H., Liang G.., (2012). Japanese encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis virus in mainland China. Rev Med Virol ; Vol. 22, no.5, pp.301-22.
[116]  Prasad S.R., Kumar V., Marwaha R.K., Batra K.L., Rath R.K., Pal S.R., (1993). An epidemic of encephalitis in Haryana : serological evidence of Japanese encephalitis in a few patients, Indian Pediatric, : Vol. 30, no.7, pp.905-10.
[117]  Seo H.J., Kim H.C., Klein T.A., Ramey A.M., Lee J.H., Kyung S.G., Park J.Y., Cho Y.S., Cho I.S., Yeh J.Y., (2013).Molecular detection and genotyping of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes during a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Korea, PLoS One, vol.8, no.2, pp.e55165.
[118]  Zhang L., Luan R.S., Jiang F., Rui L.P., Liu M., Li Y.X., Yin Z.D., Luo H.M.. (2012).Epidemiological characteristics of Japanese encephalitis in Guizhou Province, China, 1971-2009, Biomed Environ Sci. Vol,25, no.3, pp.297-304.
[119]  Sarkar A., Taraphdar D., Mukhopadhyay S.K., Chakrabarti S., Chatterjee S.. (2012). Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype I and III infection associated with acute encephalitis in patients of West Bengal, India, 2010. Virol J ; Vol. 9, pp.271.
[120]  Buitrago D., Rocha A., Tena-Tomás, C. Vigo M., Agüero M., Jiménez-Clavero M.A.. (2012). Real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Bagaza virus. J Vet Diagn Invest; Vol. 24, no.5, pp.959-63.
[121]  Li S.H., Li X.F., Zhao H., Jiang T., Deng Y.Q., Yu X.D., Zhu Q.Y., Qin E.D., Qin. C.F. (2011). Cross protection against lethal West Nile virus challenge in mice immunized with recombinant E protein domain III of Japanese encephalitis virus. Immunol Lett; Vol.138, no. 2, pp.156-60.
[122]  De Filette, M., Ulbert S., Diamond, M. Sanders N.N.. (2012). Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination. Vet Res; Vol.43, pp.16.
[123]  Paticheep S., Kongsaengdao S.. (2011).Viral infection of central nervous system in children: one year prospective study. J Med Assoc Thai; Vol. 94, no.7pp,S24-31.
[124]  C.Song, C. Zhu, C. Zhang, S. Cui. “Detection of porcine parvovirus using a taqman-based real-time pcr with primers and probe designed for the NS1 gene”. Virol J ; Vol.7, pp.353, 2010.
[125]  Chen M.J., Lin C.Y., Wu Y.T., Wu P.C., Lung S.C., Su. H.J. (2012).Effects of extreme precipitation to the distribution of infectious diseases in Taiwan, 1994-2008. PLoS One; Vol. 7, no.6, :e34651.,
[126]  Carney J., Daly J.M., Nisalak A., Solomon T.. (2012). Recombination and positive selection identified in complete genome sequences of Japanese encephalitis virus. Arch Virol; Vol.157, no. 1, pp.75-83.
[127]  Pan X.L., Liu H., Wang H.Y., Fu S.H., Liu H.Z., Zhang H.L., Li M.H.. et al, (2011).Emergence of genotype I of Japanese encephalitis virus as the dominant genotype in Asia. J Virol. Vol. 85, no.19, pp. 9847-53.
[128]  Huy T.Q., Hanh N.T., Thuy N.T., Chung P.V., Nga P.T., Tuan M.A.. (2011). A novel biosensor based on serum antibody immobilization for rapid detection of viral antigens. Talanta ; Vol. 86, pp.271-7.
[129]  Li X.L., Fu S.H., Liu W.B., Wang H.Y., Lu Z., Tong S.X., Li Z.X., Nasci R.S., Kosoy O., Cui Y., Liang G.D.. (2013). West Nile virus infection in Xinjiang, China. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis; Vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 131-3.
[130]  Ali A., Igarashi A., Paneru L.R., Hasebe F., Morita K., Takagi M., Suwonkerd W., Tsuda Y., Wada Y.. (1995).Characterization of two Japanese encephalitis virus strains isolated in Thailand. Arch Virol. : Vol. 140, no. 9, pp.1557-75.
[131]  Saxena V., Dhole T.N.. (2008). Preventive strategies for frequent outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis in Northern India. J Biosci; Vol. 33, no.4, pp. 505-14.
[132]  Touch S., Hills S., Sokhal B., Samnang C., Sovann L., Khieu V., Soeung S.C., Toda K., Robinson J., Grundy J.., (2009). Epidemiology and burden of disease from Japanese encephalitis in Cambodia: results from two years of sentinel surveillance. Trop Med Int Health ; Vol. 14, no.11, pp.1365-73.
[133]  Jia N., Zhao Q.M., Guo X.F., Cheng J.X., Wu C., Zuo S.Q., Dai P.F., Zhao J.Y., Zhang J.S.. (2011). Encephalitis temporally associated with live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine: four case reports. BMC Infect Dis; Vol.11, no.344.
[134]  Satou K., Nishiura H., (2007).Evidence of the partial effects of inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccination: analysis of previous outbreaks in Japan from 1953 to 1960. Ann Epidemiol; Vol. 17, no.4, pp.271-7.
[135]  Okabe, N. (2005). Background of recent JE vaccine issues. Uirusu; Vol. 55, no.2, pp.303-6.
[136]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2005).Japanese encephalitis in a U.S. traveler returning from Thailand, 2004 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Vol.54, no.5, pp.123-5.
[137]  Werlinrud A.M., Christiansen C.B., Koch A., (2011). Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia. J Travel Med; Vol.18, no.6, pp.411-3.
[138]  Ye Q., Li, X.F. Zhao, H. Li S.H., Deng Y.Q., Cao R.Y., Song K.Y., et al,. (2012). A single nucleotide mutation in NS2A of Japanese encephalitis-live vaccine virus (SA14-14-2) ablates NS1' formation and contributes to attenuation. J Gen Virol ; Vol. 93, no. Pt 9, pp.1959-64.
[139]  M.Diagana, P.M. Preux, M. Dumas. (2007). Japanese encephalitis revisited. J Neurol Sci; Vol.262, no.1-2, pp.165-70.
[140]  Gulati B.R., Singha H., Singh B.K., Virmani N., Kumar S., Singh R.K., (2012).Isolation and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus from equines in India. J Vet Sci; Vol.13, no.2, pp.111-8.
[141]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Japanese encephalitis surveillance and immunization--Asia and the Western Pacific, (2012).MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Vol.62, no.33, pp.658-62.
[142]  Heinz F. X., Berger R., Tuma W., Kunz C., (1983). A topological and functional model of epitopes on the structural glycoprotein of tick-borne encephalitis virus defined by monoclonal antibodies. Virology, pp. v. 126, pp. 525-37,
[143]  Schlesinger J.J., Chapman, S. (1995).Neutralizing F (ab′) 2 fragments of protective monoclonal antibodies to yellow fever virus (YF) envelope protein fail to protect mice against lethal YF encephalitis. J. Gen. Virol, v. 76, pp. 217-20.
[144]  Henchal E.A., Henchal L.S., Schlesinger J.J., (1988). Synergistic interactions of anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies protect passively immunized mice from lethal challenge with dengue 2 virus. J. Gen. Virol, v. 69: pp. 2101-7.
[145]  Brinton M.A, Arnheiter H., Haller O., (1982).Interferon independence of genetically controlled resistance to flaviviruses. Infect. Immun, v. 36, pp. 284-288.
[146]  E. A. Gould A. Buckley, (1989).Antibody dependent enhancement of yellow fever and Japanese Encephalitis Virus neurovirulence. J. Gen. Virology. v. 70: pp. 1605-1608.
[147]  Saini M., Vrati, S. A (2003). Japanese encephalitis virus peptide present on Johnson Grass Mosaic virus like particles induces virus neutralizing antibodies and protects mice against lethal challenge, Journal of Virology, pp. 3847-3494.
[148]  Kaufman B.M., Summers P.L., Dubois D.R. et al. (1989).Monoclonal antibodies for dengue virus prM glycoprotein protect mice against lethal dengue infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol. 41, pp. 576-80.
[149]  Kimura-Kuroda J, Yasui K.. (1988).Protection of mice against Japanese encephalitis virus by passive administration with monoclonal antibodies, J. Immunol., vol.141, pp. 3606-10.
[150]  Mason P.W., (1989).Maturation of Japanese encephalitis virus glycoproteins produced by infected mammalian and mosquito cells. Virology, v. 169 no. (2), pp. 354-64.
[151]  Falgout B., Bray M., Schlesinger J.J., Lai C.J., (1990). Immunization of mice with recombinant vaccine virus expressing authentic dengue virus non-structural protein NS1 protects against lethal dengue virus encephalitis. J. Virol, v. 64, pp. 4356-63.
[152]  Putnak J.R., Schlesinger J.J., (1990).Protection of mice against yellow fever virus encephalitis by immunization with a vaccinia virus recombinant encoding the yellow fever virus non-structural proteins, NS1, NS2a and NS2b. J. Gen. Virol, 71, pp. 1697-702.
[153]  Nathanson N., Cole G.A., (1971).Immunosuppression: a means to assess the role of the immune response in acute virus infections. Fed. Proc, vol.. 30, pp. 1822-30.
[154]  Diamond S. M., (2003).Evasion of innate and adaptive immunity by flaviviruses. Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 81. pp. 196-206.
[155]  Nikolay B., Diallo M., Boye C.S., Sall A.A.. (2011).Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.Vol. 11, no.11, pp. 1417-23.
[156]  Anderson K.B., Gibbons R.V., Thomas S.J., Rothman A.L., Nisalak A., Berkelman R.L., Libraty D.H., Endy T.P., (2011).Preexisting Japanese encephalitis virus neutralizing antibodies and increased symptomatic dengue illness in a school-based cohort in Thailand. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol. 5 no. 10, pp. e1311.
[157]  Holzman H., Heinz F.X., Mandl C.W., Guitakhoo F., Kunz C., (1990).A single amino acid substitution in envelope protein E of tick-borne encephalistis virus leads to attenuation in the mouse model. J. Virology, vol. 64, pp. 5156-9.
[158]  Wang K., Deubel V., (2011).Mice with different susceptibility to Japanese encephalitis virus infection show selective neutralizing antibody response and myeloid cell infectivity. PLoS One, vol. 6 no. 9, pp. e24744.
[159]  Mansfield K.L., Horton D. L., Johnson N., Li L., Barrett A.D., Smith D.J., Galbraith S.E., T. Solomon, A.R. Fooks, (2011). Flavivirus-induced antibody cross-reactivity. J Gen Virol, v. 92 no. (Pt 12): pp. 2821-9.
[160]  Gangwar R.S., Shil P., Sapkal G.N., Khan S.A., Gore M.M., (2011). Induction of virus-specific neutralizing immune response against West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses by chimeric peptides representing T-helper and B-cell epitopes. Virus Res,. vol. 163 no. 1, pp. 40-50.
[161]  Van Gessel Y., Klade C.S., Putnak R., Formica A., Krasaesub S., Spruth M., Cena B., Tungtaeng A. Gettayacamin, M., Dewasthaly S.. (2011).Correlation of protection against Japanese encephalitis virus and JE vaccine (IXIARO(®)) induced neutralizing antibody titers. Vaccine, vol.29, no.35, pp.5925-31.
[162]  Ogawa M,, Okubo H,, Tsuji Y., Yasui N., Someda K., (1973).Chronic progressive encephalitis occurring 13 years after Russian spring summer encephalitis. J. Neurol. Sci, vol. 19, pp. 363-73.
[163]  Chastel C.. (2011). Asymptomatic infections in man: a Trojan horse for the introduction and spread of mosquito-borne arboviruses in non-endemic areas? Bull Soc Pathol Exot, vol. 104, no.3, pp.213-9.
[164]  Samuel, C. E. (1991).Antiviral actions of interferon: Interferon-regulatedcellular proteins and their surprisingly selective antiviral activities, Virology, pp. 183, 1-11.
[165]  Ling Yi Lin, Li-Kuang Chen, Ching-Len Liao, Chia-Tsui Yeh, Hsien-Yuan Chiang Shiou-Hwa Ma, Jin-Ling Chen, Yue-Ling Huang, Shih-Shun Chen, (1998).Protective Immunity in Mice Virus Nonstructural Protein NS1 Elicits DNA Immunization with Japanese Encephalitis, J. Viro, vol. 72 no. 1, pp. 191.
[166]  Colombage G., Hall R., Pavy M., Lobigs M., (1998).DNA-based and alphavirus-vectored immunisation with prM and E proteins elicits long-lived and protective immunity against the flavivirus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus. Virology, vol. 250, pp. 151-63.
[167]  Ochsenbein A. F., Zinkernagel R.M., (2000). Natural antibodies and complement link innate and acquired immunity. Immunol. Today, vol. 21: pp. 624-30.
[168]  Volanakis J.. (2002).The role of complement in innate and adaptive immunity. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. Vol, 266: pp. 41-56.
[169]  Nathanson, N., Cole G.A., (1971).Immunosuppression: a means to assess the role of the immune response in acute virus infections. Fed. Proc, vol. 30, pp. 1822-30.
[170]  Monath T. P., McLean R. G., Cropp, C. P. G. Parham L, Lazuick J. S., Calisher. C. H. (1981). Diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis by immunofluorescent staining of brain tissue, Am J Vet Res,. Vol, 42 no. 8, pp. 1418-1421.
[171]  Deng Y.Q., Dai J.X., Ji G.H., Jiang T., Wang H.J., Yang H.O., Tan W.L., Liu R., Yu M., Ge B.X., et al (2011).A broadly flavivirus cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a novel epitope within the fusion loop of E protein. PLoS One, vol.6, no.1, pp.e16059.
[172]  Larena M., Regner M., Lee E., Lobigs M.. (2011).Pivotal role of antibody and subsidiary contribution of CD8+ T cells to recovery from infection in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis. J Virol, vol.85, no.1, pp.5446-55.
[173]  Liu K., Yao Z., Zhang L., Li J., Xing L., Wang X., (2012).MDCK cell-cultured influenza virus vaccine protects mice from lethal challenge with different influenza viruses. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012 Jun; vol.94, no.5, pp.1173-9.
[174]  Venturi G., Marchi A., Fiorentini C., Ramadani N., Quaglio G., Kalaveshi A., Bertinato L., Putoto G., Benedetti E., Rezza G., Ciufolini M.G.. (2011).Prevalence of antibodies to phleboviruses and flaviviruses in Peja, Kosovo. Clin Microbiol Infect, Vol. 17, no.8, pp.1180-2.
[175]  Dubischar-Kastner K., Eder S., Buerger V., Gartner-Woelfl G., Kaltenboeck A., Schuller E., Tauber E., Klade C., (2010). Long-term immunity and immune response to a booster dose following vaccination with the inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine IXIARO, IC51. Vaccine, Vol, 19; no. 28, pp. 5197-202,
[176]  Halstead S.B., Thomas S. J.. (2011). New Japanese encephalitis vaccines: alternatives to production in mouse brain. Expert review of vaccines, vol. 10, no.3, pp. 355-64.
[177]  Gubler D.J.. (2011). Emerging vector-borne flavivirus diseases: are vaccines the solution? Expert Rev Vaccines, vol. 10, no.5, pp.563-5.
[178]  W.H.O 2005-2010, (2009) World Health Organization Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. Procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of vaccines for purchase by United Nations agencies.,).
[179]  Verma R., (2012).Japanese encephalitis vaccine: need of the hour in endemic states of India. Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol.8, no.4, pp.491-3.
[180]  Kay M.. (2013). Encephalitis claims 13 more lives as Indian government launches vaccine against one cause of the outbreak. BMJ, vol. 347, pp.:f6175.
[181]  Ohtaki E., Matsuishi T., Hirano Y., Maekawa K., (1995). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after treatment with Japanese B encephalitis vaccine (Nakayama-Yoken and Beijing strains). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, vol.. 59: pp. 316-317.
[182]  Hombach J., Solomon T., Kurane I., Jacobson J,, Wood D., (2005). Report on a WHO consultation on immunological endpoints for evaluation of new Japanese encephalitis vaccines, WHO, Geneva, 2-3 September, 2004, Vaccine, vol.. 23, no.45, pp. 5205-5211
[183]  Hoke C.H., Nisalak A., Sangawhipa N., et al. (1988).Protection against Japanese encephalitis by inactivated vaccines. N Engl J Med, vol. 319 no. 10, pp. 608-614.
[184]  MarksF., NguyenT.T., TranN.D., NguyenM.H., Vu H.H., MeyerC.G., YouY.A., KoningsF., LiuW., WierzbaT.F., Xu Z.Y., (2012).Effectiveness of the Viet Nam produced, mouse brain-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Northern Viet Nam, PLoS Negl Trop Dis., Vol. 6, no.12, pp. :e1952.
[185]  Halstead S.B., Tsai, T.F. (2004). Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines, In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA. Vaccines, 4th ed, Philadelphia: Saunders; 1).
[186]  Torresi, J, McCarthy K, Feroldi E., Méric, C. (2010). Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability in adults of a new single-dose, live-attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis: Randomised controlled phase 3 trials. Vaccine. vol. 23; no. 28 (50), pp. 7993-8000.
[187]  Konishi E., Ajiro N., Nukuzuma C., (2003).Comparison of protective efficacies of plasmid DNAs encoding Japanese encephalitis virus proteins that induce neutralizing antibody of cytotxoic T lymphocytes in mice, Vaccine, vol. 21, no. 25-26, pp. 3675-3683.
[188]  Bharati K., Vrati. S., (2006).Japanese encephalitis: development of new candidate vaccines. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. Vol.4, no.2, pp.313-24.
[189]  Monath T. P., McCarthy K., Bedford P., et al. (2002). Clinical proof of principle for ChimeriVax: recombinant live, attenuated vaccines against flavivirus infections, Vaccine, vol. 20 no. 7-8, pp. 1004-1018.
[190]  Montagnon B. J., Fanget B., Nicolas A.J., (1981).The large-scale cultivation of VERO cells in micro-carrier culture for virus vaccine production: preliminary results for killed poliovirus vaccine, Dev Biol Stand, vol. 47: pp. 55-64.
[191]  Schuller E., Jilma B,, Voicu V., et al., (2008).Long-term immunogenicity of the new Vero cell-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine IC51 six and 12 month results of a multicenter follow-up phase 3 study. Vaccine, vol. 26. no. 34, pp. 4382-4386.
[192]  Schuller E., Klade C.S., Wolfl G., Kaltenbock A., Tauber S., E., (2009).Comparison of a single, high-dose vaccination regimen to the standard regimen for Dewasthaly the investigational Japanese encephalitis vaccine, IC51: a randomized, observer-blind, controlled Phase 3 study. Vaccine, v. 27 no. 15, pp. 2188-2193.
[193]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009).ACIP provisional recommendations.,
[194]  Wang, H.J.. Li, X. F.Q. Ye, Li, S.H. Deng Y.Q., Zhao H., Xu Y.P., Ma J., Qin E.D., Qin C.F.. (2014).Recombinant chimeric Japanese encephalitis virus/tick-borne encephalitis virus is attenuated and protective in mice, Vaccine, vol.32, no.8, pp.949-56.
[195]  Li X.F., Deng Y.Q., Yang H.Q., Zhao, H. Jiang, T., Yu X.D., Li S.H., et al, (2013).A chimeric dengue virus vaccine using Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as backbone is immunogenic and protective against either parental virus in mice and nonhuman primates. J Virol. Vol. 87, no.24, pp.13694-705.
[196]  Kikukawa A., GomiY., AkechiM., OnishiT., ManabeS., NamazueJ., FukeI., IshikawaT., OkunoY., Ueda, S. (2012).Superior immunogenicity of a freeze-dried, cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (inactivated), Vaccine, vol.30, no.13, pp.2329-35.
[197]  Upreti S.R., Janusz K.B., Schluter W.W., Bichha R.P., Shakya G., Biggerstaff, B.J., Shrestha M.M., et al., (2013). Estimation of the impact of a Japanese encephalitis immunization program with live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg; Vol.88, no.3, pp.464-8.
[198]  Arroyo J., Guirakhoo, F., Fenner S., Zhang Z.X., Monath T. P., Chambers T. J., (2001).Molecular basis for attenuation of neurovirulence of a yellow fever virus/Japanese encephalitis chimera vaccine (Chimeri Vax-JE), J. Virology, vol. 75, pp. 934-942.
[199]  Bray, M., Zhao B. T, Markoff L, Eckels K. H, Chanock R. M.,. Lai, C.J Mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing dengue virus 4 structural proteins with or without NS1 are protected against fatal dengue virus encephalitis. Journal of Virology, vol. 63, pp.2853-2856.
[200]  Ling Yi Lin, Li-Kuang Chen, Ching-Len Liao, Chia-Tsui Yeh, Hsien-Yuan Chiang Shiou-Hwa Ma, Jin-Ling Chen, Yue-Ling Huang, Shih-Shun Chen, (1998).Protective Immunity in Mice Virus Nonstructural Protein NS1 Elicits DNA Immunization with Japanese Encephalitis, J. Viro, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 191.
[201]  Nasveld P.E., Ebringer A., Elmes N, Bennett S., Yoksan S., Aaskov J., McCarthy K., et al, (2010). Long term immunity to live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine: randomized, double-blind, 5-year phase II study in healthy adults. Human vaccines. vol. 6, no.12, pp. 1038-46,
[202]  Bhatt T.R., Crabtree M.B., Guirakhoo F., Monath T.P. , Miller, B.R. (2000).Growth characteristics of the chimeric Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine candidate, ChimeriVax-JE (YF/JE SA14--14--2), in Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, Am J Trop Med Hyg. Vol.62, no.(4), pp.480-4.
[203]  David W.C., Beasley C., Todd D., Jose Estrada-Franco, Roberto Navarro-Lopez, Arturo Campomanes-Cortes, Tesh B R., Weaver, S. C., Barrett Alan D.T., (2004).Genome Sequence and Attenuating Mutations in West Nile Virus Isolate from Mexico. Infect Dis, vol. 10, no.12, pp. 2221-2224.
[204]  Liu P., Lu Hao, Shuang Li, Gregory Moureau, Yong-Qiang Deng, Yongyue Wang, Lijiao Zhang, Tao Jiang, Xavier de Lamballerie, Cheng-Feng Qin, A. E. Gould, Su. Jingliang, F. Gao, (2012). Genomic and antigenic characterization of the newly-emerging Chinese duck egg-drop syndrome flavivirus: genomic comparison with Tembusu and Sitiawan viruses, J Gen Virol, vir.0.043554-0;
[205]  Appaiahgari M.B., Vrati S., (2012).Clinical development of IMOJEV ®--a recombinant Japanese encephalitis chimeric vaccine (JE-CV), Expert Opin Biol Ther. Vol.12, no.9, pp.1251-63.
[206]  Tauber E., Kollaritsch H,, Von F.. Sonnenburg, et al, (2008).Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of the safety and tolerability of IC51, an inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, J Infect Dis, vol. 198, no.4, pp. 493-499.
[207]  U.S. Public Health Service, (1988).Centers for Disease Control, National Institutes of Health, Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. Washington, DC : U.S. Public Health Service.
[208]  Sanofi Pasteur. index.jsp?siteCodepSP _CORP&code Rubriquep 34, (2009).
[209]  WHO SEARO. Thailand 2007 EPI Fact Sheet, Data as reported in the 2007 WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, (2008).
[210]  Gromeier M., Wimmer E., Gorbalenya A. E., (1999).Genetics, pathogenesis and evolution of picornaviruses, in Origin and Evolution of Viruses, E. Domingo, R. G. Webster, and J. J. Holland, Eds., pp. 287-343, Academic Press, London, UK, pp. 287-343.
[211]  Guy B., Guirakhoo F., Barban V., Higgs S, Monath T.P., Lang J., (2009).Preclinical and clinical development of YFV 17D-based chimeric vaccines against dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Vaccine, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 632-649.
[212]  D Yang, XF Li, Q Ye, HJ Wang, YQ Deng, SY Zhu, Y Zhang, SH Li, CF Qin., (2014). Characterization of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine virus SA14-14-2. Vaccine. Vol.32, no. 23, 2675-81.
[213]  Intercell. Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Accessed 26 August (2009).
[214]  Dubischar-Kastner K., Eder S., Buerger V., Gartner-Woelfl G., Kaltenboeck A., Schuller E., Tauber E., Klade C., (2010). Long-term immunity and immune response to a booster dose following vaccination with the inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine IXIARO, IC51, Vaccine, vol. 19; no. 28, pp. 5197-202.
[215]  Eder S., Dubischar-Kastner K., Firbas C., Jelinek T., Jilma B., Kaltenboeck A., Knappik M., Kollaritsch H., Kundi M., Paulke-Korinek M., Schuller E., Klade C.S., (2011).Long term immunity following a booster dose of the inactivated Japanese Encephalitis vaccine IXIARO®, IC51. Vaccine, vol. 21, no.29 (14): pp. 2607-12.
[216]  Kaltenbock, A. Dubischar-Kastner K, Eder G., et al. (2009). Safety and immunogenicity of concomitant vaccination with the cell-culture based Japanese Encephalitis vaccine IC51 and the hepatitis A vaccine HAVRIX1440 in healthy subjects: a single-blind, randomized, controlled phase 3 study. Vaccine, vol. 27, no. 33, pp. 4483-4489.
[217]  U.S. Public Health Service, (1988)Centers for Disease Control, National Institutes of Health. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. Washington, DC: U.S. Public Health Service.
[218]  Eckels K.H., Yu Y.X., Dubois D.R, Marchette N.J, Trent D.W, Johnson A.J., (1988).Japanese encephalitis virus live-attenuated vaccine, Chinese strain SA14-14-2; adaptation to primary canine kidney cell cultures and preparation of a vaccine for human use. Vaccine, vol. 6, no.6, pp. 513-518.
[219]  W.H.O 2005-2010, World Health Organization Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. Procedure for assessing the acceptability, in principle, of vaccines for purchase by United Nations agencies,, (2009).
[220]  Hennessy S., Liu Z., Tsai T.F., et al, (1996).Effectiveness of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (SA14-14-2): a case-control study. Lancet, vol. 347, no. 9015, pp. 1583-1586.
[221]  Xin Y.Y., Ming Z. C., Peng G. Y.. L. H. Min, (1988).Safety of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine (SA 14-14-2) for children, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol. 39, pp. 214-217.
[222]  Beasley D.W., Lewthwaite P., T. Solomon, (2008). Current use and development of vaccines for Japanese encephalitis. Expert Opin Biol Ther, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 95-106.
[223]  Chokephaibulkit K., Sirivichayakul C., Thisyakorn U., Sabchareon A., Pancharoen C, Bouckenooghe A, Gailhardou S, Boaz M, Feroldi E, (2010).Safety and immunogenicity of a single administration of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in previously primed 2- to 5-year-olds and naive 12- to 24-month-olds: multicenter randomized controlled trial, The Pediatric infectious disease journal, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1111-7.
[224]  Ohrr H., Tandan J.B., Sohn Y.M., Shin S.H., Pradhan D.P, Halstead S.B., (2005). Effect of single dose of SA 14-14-2 vaccine 1 year after immunization in Nepalese children with Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study, Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9494, pp. 1375-1378.
[225]  Tandan J.B., Ohrr H., Sohn Y.M., et al., (2007).Single dose of SA 14-14-2 vaccine provides long-term protection against Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study in Nepalese children 5 years after immunization, Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 27, pp. 5041-5045.
[226]  Bista M., Banerjee M.K., Shin S.H., et al., (2001).Efficacy of single-dose SA 14-14-2 vaccine against Japanese encephalitis: a case control study, Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9284. pp. 791-5.
[227]  Nimmannitya S,. Hutamai S., Kalayanarooj S., Rojanasuphot S., (1995).A field study on Nakayama and Beijing strains of Japanese encephalitis vaccines, Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 689-693.
[228]  World Health Organization (WHO). (2006). Position paper—Japanese encephalitis vaccines, Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 81, no.34/35, pp. 331-340.
[229]  Kollaritsch H., Paulke-Korinek M., Dubischar-Kastner K.. (2009). IC51 Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Expert Opin Biol Ther; vol.9, no.7, pp.921-31.
[230]  Nitatpattana N., Dubot-Pérès, A, Gouilh. M.A., Souris M., Barbazan P., Yoksan S., Lamballerie X. de, Gonzalez J.P., (2008).Change in Japanese encephalitis virus distribution, Thailand, Emerg. Infect. Dis, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1762-1765.
[231]  Konishi E., Yamoka M., Win K.s., Kurane I., Mason P.W., (1998). Induction of protective immunity against Japanese encephalitis in mice by immunization with a plasmid encoding Japanese encephalitis virus premembrane and envelope gens. J Virol, vol.72, pp. 4925-4930.
[232]  Swaddiwuthipong W., WenigerB.G., WattanasriS., M., WarrellJ., (1988).A high rate of neurological complications following Semple anti-rabies vaccine. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 472-5.
[233]  Miura K., Onodera T., Nishida A., Goto N., and Fujisaki Y., (1990).A single gene controls resistance to Japanese encephalitis virus in mice, Archives of Virology, vol. 112, no. 3-4, pp. 261-270.
[234]  Kaur R.. Sachdeva G., Vrati S., (2002).Plasmid DNA immunization against jpanese encephalitis virus; immunogenicity of membrane anchored and secretary envelope protein, J. Infect. Dis, vol. 185, pp. 1-12.
[235]  Ramkrishna C. R., Desai S. K., Shanker S. K., Chandramukhi S. K., Ravi R., (1999).Oral immunization of mice with live Japanese encephalitis virus induces a protective immune response. Vaccine, vol. 17, pp. 3102-3108.
[236]  Kolaskar A.S., Kulkarne-Kale U.. (1999).Prediction of three dimensional structure and mapping of conformational epitopes of envelope glycoprotein of Japanese encephalitis virus. Virology. vol. 261, pp. 31-42.
[237]  Ni H., Burns N. J., Chang G.J., Zhang M.J., Wills M.R., Trent, D.W., Sanders P.G., Barrett A.D., (1994). Comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the 50 non-coding region and structural protein genes of the wild-type Japanese encephalitis virus strain SA14 and its attenuated vaccine derivatives. J Gen Virol, vol. 75, pp. 1505-1510.
[238]  Patent (patent no. 7,425,335), (2008).Chimeric T helper-B cell peptide vaccine for Japanese encephalitis virus, Gore; M. M. (Pune, IN), Kolaskar; Ashok (Pune, IN), Dewasthaly; S. S. (Pune, IN), Kulkarani-Kale; Urmila D. (Pune, IN), Sawant; Sangeeta (Pune, IN).
[239]  Mason P.W., (1989).Maturation of Japanese encephalitis virus glycoproteins produced by infected mammalian and mosquito cells. Virology, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 354-64.
[240]  Robinson C. R., Saurer R. T., 1998).Optimizing the stability of single chain proteins by linker length and composition mutagenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 95, pp.5929-5934.
[241]  Regenmortel M. H. V., (2000).Molecular design versus empirical discovery in peptide based vaccine coming to terms with fuzzy recognition sites and ill defined structure-function relationships in Immunology. Vaccine,. vol. 18, pp. 216-22.
[242]  M, Kuwahara, Konishi E., (2010).Evaluation of extracellular subviral particles of dengue virus type 2 and Japanese encephalitis virus produced by Spodoptera frugiperda cells for use as vaccine and diagnostic antigens. Clin Vaccine Immunol, vol. 17, pp.1560-6.
[243]  Tripathi N.K., Shukla J., Biswas K.C., Lakshmana Rao P.V., (2010).Development of a simple fed-batch process for the high-yield production of recombinant Japanese encephalitis virus protein. Appl. Microb.Biotechnol, vol. 86, no.6, pp. 1795-803.
[244]  DuttaP., Khan S.A., KhanA.M., Borah J., Sarmah C.K., Mahanta J., (2011). The effect of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITMNs) on Japanese encephalitis virus seroconversion in pigs and humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.84, no.3, pp.466-72.
[245]  Appaighari M. B., Vrati S., (2007). DNAzyme-mediated inhibition of Japanese Encephalitis virus replication in mouse brain. Molecular Therapy, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1593-1599.
[246]  Wong S.C., Ooi M.H., AbdullahA.R., Wong S.Y., Krishnan S., Tio P.H., Pek P.C., Lai B.F., Mohan, A., Muhi J., Kiyu A., Arif M.T., Cardosa M.J., (2008).A decade of Japanese encephalitis surveillance in Sarawak, Malaysia: 1997-2006. Trop Med Int Health., vol. 13, no.1, pp.52-5,
[247]  T.Solomon, Recent Advances in Japanese encephalitis, J. Neurovirol; vol.9, no.2, pp. 274-83, (2003).
[248]  Chiou S.S., Chen W.J., Phenotypic changes in the Japanese encephalitis virus after one passage in Neuro-2a cells: generation of attenuated strains of the virus, Vaccine, vol.26, no. 1, pp.15-23, (2007).
[249]  Yun S. I., Kim S.Y., Rice C. M., Lee Y.M., (2003).Development and application of a reverse genetics system for Japanese encephalitis virus. J. Virol, vol. 77, pp. 6450-6465.
[250]  Lin Y.L., Huang Y.L., Ma S.H. et al, (1997).Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by nitric oxide: antiviral effect of nitric oxide on RNA virus replication. J. Virol, vol. 71, pp. 5227-35.
[251]  Chen Y.Y., Lin J.W., Fan Y.C., Chiou S.S., (2012).Detection and differentiation of genotype I and III Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Transbound Emerg Dis. vol.61, no. 1, pp.37-43.
[252]  Endy T. P. and Nisalak A,, (2002).Japanese enchphalitis virus:ecology and epidemiology, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 267, pp. 11-48.
[253]  Guirakhoo F., Zhang Z.X., Chambers T. J., Delagrave S., Arroyo J., Barrett A.D., Monath T.P., (1999). Immunogenicity, genetic stability, and protective efficacy of a recombinant, chimeric yellow fever-Japanese encephalitis virus (ChimeriVax-JE) as a live, attenuated vaccine candidate against Japanese encephalitis, Virology. vol.257, no.2, pp.363-72.
[254]  Monath T. P., Soike K., Levenbook I., Zhang Z.X., Arroyo J., Delagrave S., Myers G., BarrettA.D., Shope R.E., M.Ratterree, Chambers T.J., Guirakhoo F., (1999).Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates. Vaccine. vol.17, no.15-16, pp.1869-82.
[255]  Wu X., Zhou T., O’Dell S., Wyatt R. T., Kwong P. D., and Mascola J. R., (2009).Mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to monoclonal antibody b12 that effectively targets the site of CD4 attachment, Journal of Virology, vol. 83, no. 21,pp. 10892-10907.
[256]  Upadhyayula S. M., Rao Mutheneni S., Nayanoori H. K., Natarajan A., and Goswami P., (2012).Impact of weather variables on mosquitoes infected with Japanese encephalitis virus in Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 337-341,
[257]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (2013).Japanese encephalitis surveillance and immunization—Asia and the Western pacific, MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 62, no. 33, pp. 658-662.
[258]  Update on Japanese encephalitis vaccine for children: United States, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update on Japanese encephalitis vaccine for children: United States, May 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, vol.60, no.20, 664-5, (2011).
[259]  Kumari R., Kumar K., Rawat A., Singh G., Yadav N. K., and Chauhan L. S., (2013).First indigenous transmission of Japanese Encephalitis in urban areas of National Capital Territory of Delhi, India, Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 743-749.
[260]  Zhang D.L., Ma L.B., Fu S.H., Wang L.H., Wang H.Y., Zhang M., Wei Z.G., et al., (2008). Clinical characteristics and laboratory assay of adult Japanese encephalitis patients in an outbreak in Yuncheng, Shanxi Province, 2006, Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi, vol.22, no.2, pp.95-7.
[261]  Rathi A.K., Kushwaha K.P., Singh Y.D., Singh J., Sirohi R., Singh R.K., Singh U.K., (1993).JE virus encephalitis: 1988 epidemic at Gorakhpur. Indian Pediatr. Vol.30, no. 3, pp.325-333.
[262]  Mackenzie J. S., Poidinger M., Lindsay M.D., Hall R.A., Sammels L.M., (1994).Molecular epidemiology and evolution of mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses enzootic in Australia. Virus genes, Vol. 11, no.2-3, 225-37.
[263]  Risebro H.L., Doria M.F., Andersson Y., Medema G., Osborn K., Schlosser O., Hunter P.R., (2007).Fault tree analysis of the causes of water borne outbreaks, J Water Health, Vol.5, no.1, pp.1-18.
[264]  Keiser, J., Maltese M.F., Erlanger T.E.,. Bos R, Tanner, M., Singer B.H., Utzinger J., (2005). Effect of irrigated rice agriculture on Japanese encephalitis, including challenges and opportunities for integrated vector management. Acta Trop, vol.95, no.1, pp.40-57.
[265]  AleraM.T., VelascoJ.M., Ypil-CardenasC.A., JarmanR.G., NisalakA.N., ThaisomboonsukB., GibbonsR.V., Dimaano E.M., Yoon I.K., (2013). Hospital-based surveillance of Japanese encephalitis at a tertiary hospital in Manila, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, vol. 44, no.5, pp.791-8.
[266]  Ting S.H., Tan H.C., Wong W.K., Ng M.L., Chan S.H., Ooi E.E., (2004). Seroepidemiology of neutralizing antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in Singapore: continued transmission despite abolishment of pig farming?, Acta Trop, vol.92, no.3, pp. 187-91,
[267]  DhakalS., StephenC., AleA., Joshi D.D., (2012).Knowledge and practices of pig farmers regarding Japanese encephalitis in Kathmandu, Nepal. Zoonoses Public Health. vol.59, no.8, pp.568-74.
[268]  Upadhyay R. K., (2014).Evolution of new variants/mutants of JE virus, its effect on neurovirulence, antigenicity, host immune responses and disease transmission in endemic areas. Journal of Viruses, Vol. 2014, pp.1-35, ID 516904.
[269]  Turtle L., Griffiths M.J., T. Solomon. (2012). Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses. QJM ; Vol.105, no.3, pp.219-23,
[270]  Yeh J.Y., Lee J.H., Park J.Y., Seo HJ, Moon JS, Cho I.S., Kim H.P, et al, (2012).A diagnostic algorithm to serologically differentiate West Nile virus from Japanese encephalitis virus infections and its validation in field surveillance of poultry and horses, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. Vol.12, no.5, 372-9.
[271]  Yeh J.Y., Lee J.H., Seo H.J., Park J.Y., J.S. Moon, Cho, I.S., Moon JS, (2010).Fast duplex one-step reverse transcriptase PCR for rapid differential detection of West Nile and Japanese, encephalitis viruses, J Clin Microbiol. Vol.48, no.11, pp.4010-4.
[272]  Miller R.H., Masuoka, P. Klein T.A., Kim H.C., Somer T., Grieco J.. (2012). Ecological niche modeling to estimate the distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus in Asia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; Vol. 6, no.6, pp.1678.