American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajidm Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2022, 10(1), 26-47
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-10-1-5
Open AccessLiterature Review

Analysis on the Dynamic Attributes of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19

Mohd Abass Dar1, , Garima Charak1, Suman Bala1, Sudhanshu Shekhar1 and Muneeb Qadir1

1Department Physiology, Govt. Medical College Doda

Pub. Date: December 16, 2021

Cite this paper:
Mohd Abass Dar, Garima Charak, Suman Bala, Sudhanshu Shekhar and Muneeb Qadir. Analysis on the Dynamic Attributes of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2022; 10(1):26-47. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-10-1-5

Abstract

An eminently transmissible and dead-dealing pathogenic coronavirus come to light in late 2019, which was known as Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) and has caused a lethal pandemic of acute respiratory disease, named ‘Coronavirus disease 2019’ (COVID-19), which menace human health and public safety. Coronaviruses are RNA viruses that are phenotypically and genotypically myriad. In this Review, we light on the the basic virological concept of SARS-CoV-2, including genomic attributes and receptor use, highlighting its role key variance from previously known coronaviruses. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain. CoV can lead to a range of conditions as mild as the common cold, fever and cough and as severe as pneumonia, respiratory distress kidney failure or even death. These viruses are zoonotic, that is, they are transmitted between animals and humans. A couple of coronaviruses were previously identified: MERS-CoV, which causes Middle East respiratory syndrome and was transmitted from dromedary camels to humans, and SARS-CoV, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and was transmitted from civet cats to humans. COVID-19 is believed to have been transmitted zoonotically, in a wet market in Wuhan where game animals and meat were sold. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with seven U.S. health care systems and research centers with integrated medical, laboratory, and vaccination records, established the VISION Network to assess the effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines with respect to laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated hospitalizations, ICU admissions, or visits to emergency departments or urgent care clinics from January 1 through June 22, 2021. We searched PubMed, LitCovid, and MedRxiv using the search terms coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, 2019- nCoV, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and COVID-19 for studies published from January 1, 2002, to November 23, 2021, and the references of select articles for additional relevant articles searched manually also. Ongoing or completed clinical trials were identified using the disease search term coronavirus infection on ClinicalTrials.gov, the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We selected articles relevant and in close approach to a systematic reviews, clinical practice guidelines, general medicine readership, and prioritizing randomized clinical trials.

Keywords:
Covid-19 SARS-CoV-19 MERS-CoV REVIEW CDC CoV

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19), Dashboard, www.who.inthealth topics.
 
[2]  Review on the (COVID-19) pandemic paper-3; WHO COVID-19, weekly epidemiological update edition 67, published 23 Nov.2021.
 
[3]  Zhu, N. et al. A Novel Coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N. Engl. J. Med. 382, 727-733 (2020).
 
[4]  Gralinski, L. E. & Menachery, V. D. Return of the coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses 12, 135 (2020).
 
[5]  Deng, S. Q. & Peng, H. J. Characteristics of and public health responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China. J. Clin. Med. 9, 575 (2020).
 
[6]  National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. Briefing on the latest situation of the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic. http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/yqtb/list_gzbd.shtml (2020).
 
[7]  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team. Note from the editors: World Health Organization declares novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) sixth public health emergency of international concern. Euro. Surveill. 25, 200131e (2020).
 
[8]  Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat. Microbiol. 5, 536-544 (2020).
 
[9]  Ben Hu, Hua Guo, Peng Zho and Zheng-Li Shi: Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41579-020-00459-7.
 
[10]  PFISTER, Rodo (2020). [Bibliography] Coronaviruses • SARS • MERS • COVID-19 (Version5). <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340514305>, <https://www.academia.edu/42128715/>.
 
[11]  Liu Shan-Lu & SAIF Lainda-2020; emerging Viruses without Borders: the wuhan coronavirus, (editorial) in viruses 2020, 12(2), no.130. (Special Issue Pathogenesis of Human and Animals Coronaviruses).
 
[12]  W. Joost Wiersinga, MD, PhD; Andrew Rhodes, MD, PhD; Allen C. Cheng, MD, PhD; Sharon J. Peacock, PhD; Hallie C. Prescott, MD, MSc, Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)A Review in JAMA, Patient Page-816.
 
[13]  Mancia G, Rea F, Ludergnani M, Apolone G, Corrao G. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and the risk of COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(25): 2431-2440.
 
[14]  Fosbøl EL, Butt JH, Østergaard L, et al. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use with COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality. JAMA. Published online June 19, 2020.
 
[15]  Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2020; 8(4): 420-422.
 
[16]  Van de Veerdonk FL, Netea MG, van Deuren M, et al. Kallikrein-kinin blockade in patients with COVID-19 to prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome. Elife. Published online April 27, 2020.
 
[17]  Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, et al; COVID-19 Systematic Urgent Review Group Effort (SURGE) study authors. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2020; 395(10242): 1973-1987.
 
[18]  Bourouiba L. Turbulent gas clouds and respiratory pathogen emissions: potential implications for reducing transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. Published online March 26, 2020.
 
[19]  Lewis D. Is the coronavirus airborne? experts can’t agree. Nature. 2020; 580(7802): 175.
 
[20]  Dashraath P, Wong JLJ, Lim MXK, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 222(6): 521-531.
 
[21]  Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet. 2020; 395(10226): 809-815.
 
[22]  Zeng L, Xia S, Yuan W, et al. Neonatal early-onset infection with SARS-CoV-2 in 33 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Pediatr. Published online March 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics. 2020.0878.
 
[23]  Ganyani T, Kremer C, Chen D, et al. Estimating the generation interval for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) based on symptom onset data, March 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020; 25(17).
 
[24]  Mao R, Qiu Y, He JS, et al. Manifestations and prognosis of gastrointestinal and liver involvement in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020; 5(7): 667-678.
 
[25]  Levi M, Thachil J, Iba T, Levy JH. Coagulation abnormalities and thrombosis in patients with COVID-19. Lancet Haematol. 2020; 7(6): e438-e440.
 
[26]  Mao R, Qiu Y, He JS, et al. Manifestations and prognosis of gastrointestinal and liver involvement in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020; 5(7): 667-678.
 
[27]  Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, et al. The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application. Ann Intern Med. 2020; 172(9): 577-582.
 
[28]  Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al; China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(18): 1708-1720.
 
[29]  Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, et al. Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019—COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1-30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020; 69(15): 458-464.
 
[30]  The epidemiological characteristics of an out- break of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID- 19)—China, 2020. China CDC Weekly. 2020; 2: 10.
 
[31]  Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, et al; ISARIC4C investigators. Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ. 2020; 369:m1985.
 
[32]  Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, et al; the Northwell COVID-19 Research Consortium. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. JAMA. 2020; 323(20):2052-2059.
 
[33]  Bordi, L. et al. Differential diagnosis of illness in patients under investigation for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Italy, February 2020. Euro Surveill. 25, 2000170 (2020).
 
[34]  Zhou, P. et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 579, 270-273 (2020).
 
[35]  Mehta, P. et al. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet 395, 1033-1034 (2020).
 
[36]  Wu, C. et al. Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern. Med. 180, 934-943 (2020).
 
[37]  Liu, Y. et al. Association between age and clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19. Eur. Respir. J. 55, 2001112 (2020).
 
[38]  Tian, J. et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in patients with cancer in Wuhan, China: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 21, 893-903 (2020).
 
[39]  Yao, X. H. et al. [A pathological report of three COVID-19 cases by minimal invasive autopsies]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 49, 411-417 (2020).
 
[40]  Martines, R. B. et al. Pathology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 associated with fatal coronavirus disease, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 26, 2005-2015 (2020).
 
[41]  Zeng, Z. et al. Pulmonary pathology of early phase COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a Benign lung lesion. Histopathology. (2020).
 
[42]  Lu, R. et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet 395, 565-574 (2020).
 
[43]  Oreshkova, N. et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020. Euro Surveill. 25, 2001005 (2020).
 
[44]  Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; 20(4): 425-434.
 
[45]  Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al; China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(18): 1708-1720.
 
[46]  W. Joost Wiersinga, MD, PhD; Andrew Rhodes, MD, PhD; Allen C. Cheng, MD, PhD; Sharon J. Peacock, PhD; Hallie C. Prescott, MD, MSc, Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)A Review in JAMA, Patient Page-816.
 
[47]  Bernheim A, Mei X, Huang M, et al. Chest CT findings in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19): relationship to duration of infection. Radiology. 2020; 295 (3):200463.
 
[48]  Wang, X. et al. The anti-influenza virus drug, arbidol is an efficient inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Cell Discov. 6, 28 (2020).
 
[49]  Zhu, Z. et al. Arbidol monotherapy is superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in treating COVID-19. J. Infect. 81, e21-e23 (2020).
 
[50]  Li, Y. et al. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir or arbidol in adult patients with mild/moderate COVID-19: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Med (2020).
 
[51]  Lian, N. et al. Umifenovir treatment is not associated with improved outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a retrospective study. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 26, 917-921 (2020).
 
[52]  Kawase, M., Shirato, K., van der Hoek, L., Taguchi, F. & Matsuyama, S. Simultaneous treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells with serine and cysteine protease inhibitors prevents severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. J. Virol. 86, 6537-6545 (2012).
 
[53]  Zhou, Y. et al. Protease inhibitors targeting coronavirus and filovirus entry. Antiviral Res. 116, 76-84 (2015).
 
[54]  Hoffmann, M. et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell 181, 271-280 (2020).
 
[55]  Wang, M. et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019- nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 30, 269-271 (2020).
 
[56]  Grein, J. et al. Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19. N. Engl. J. Med. 382, 2327-2336 (2020).
 
[57]  Beigel, J. H. et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19 - preliminary report. N. Engl. J. Med. (2020).
 
[58]  Huang, C. et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 395, 497-506 (2020).
 
[59]  Mehta, P. et al. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet 395, 1033-1034 (2020).
 
[60]  Recovery Collaborative Group. et al. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19 - preliminary report. N. Engl. J. Med. (2020).
 
[61]  Xu, X. et al. Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 10970-10975 (2020).
 
[62]  Diurno, F. et al. Eculizumab treatment in patients with COVID-19: preliminary results from real life ASL Napoli 2 Nord experience. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 24, 4040-4047 (2020).
 
[63]  Stockman, L. J., Bellamy, R. & Garner, P. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Med. 3, e343 (2006).
 
[64]  Mantlo, E., Bukreyeva, N., Maruyama, J., Paessler, S. & Huang, C. Antiviral activities of type I interferons to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antiviral Res. 179, 104811 (2020).
 
[65]  Sallard, E., Lescure, F. X., Yazdanpanah, Y., Mentre, F. & Peiffer-Smadja, N. Type 1 interferons as a potential treatment against COVID-19. Antiviral Res. 178, 104791 (2020).
 
[66]  Park, A., Iwasaki, A. & Type, I. and Type III interferons - induction, signaling, evasion, and application to combat COVID-19. Cell Host Microbe 27, 870-878 (2020).
 
[67]  Wang, C. et al. A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nat. Commun. 11, 2251 (2020).
 
[68]  Wu, Y. et al. A noncompeting pair of human neutralizing antibodies block COVID-19 virus binding to its receptor ACE2. Science 368, 1274-1278 (2020).
 
[69]  Zost, S. J. et al. Potently neutralizing and protective human antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Nature 584, 443-449 (2020).
 
[70]  Shi, R. et al. A human neutralizing antibody targets the receptor-binding site of SARS-CoV-2. Nature 584, 120-124 (2020).
 
[71]  Smith, T. R. F. et al. Immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine candidate for COVID-19. Nat. Commun. 11, 2601 (2020).
 
[72]  Zhu, F. C. et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial. Lancet 395, 1845-1854 (2020).
 
[73]  Gao, Q. et al. Development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2. Science 369, 77-81 (2020).
 
[74]  Zhu, F. C. et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet 396, 479-488 (2020).
 
[75]  Folegatti, P. M. et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 396, 467-478 (2020).
 
[76]  Jackson, L. A. et al. An mRNA vaccine against SARS- CoV-2 - preliminary report. N. Engl. J. Med. (2020).
 
[77]  Xia, S. et al. Effect of an inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 on safety and immunogenicity outcomes: interim analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials. JAMA 324, 1-10 (2020).
 
[78]  Tang, D., Comish, P. & Kang, R. The hallmarks of COVID-19 disease. PLoS Pathog. 16, e1008536 (2020).