American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajidm Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
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American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2020, 8(4), 139-145
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-8-4-4
Open AccessArticle

Occurrence and Distribution of Fungal Isolates from Sputum, Ears and Nose Samples of Poultry Farm Workers in Anambra State, Nigeria

Mba Anthonia Nkiruka1, Ekwealor Chito Clare1, , Ogbukagu Chioma Maureen1, Ekwealor Ikechukwu Amechi1 and Chukwuezi Fabian Okechukwu2

1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Tansian University, Umunya, Anambra State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: December 07, 2020

Cite this paper:
Mba Anthonia Nkiruka, Ekwealor Chito Clare, Ogbukagu Chioma Maureen, Ekwealor Ikechukwu Amechi and Chukwuezi Fabian Okechukwu. Occurrence and Distribution of Fungal Isolates from Sputum, Ears and Nose Samples of Poultry Farm Workers in Anambra State, Nigeria. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2020; 8(4):139-145. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-8-4-4

Abstract

Background: Poultry farming in Nigeria is one of the most lucrative jobs. It serves as source of animal proteins, provides employment and income for urban and rural dwellers, as well as manure for crop production. Unfortunately, the major challenge in the industry is fungal disease, which causes direct harm to the workers. This research was undertaken to isolate fungal organisms from sputum, ears and nose of poultry farm workers in Anambra State, study their seasonal occurrence and health effects on farm workers based on the open/floor and closed/caged systems practiced. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,120 human samples from 280 poultry farm workers in six Local Government Area of Anambra State were examined for fungal organisms. The samples were collected and cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates, supplemented with 0.05mg/ml of chloramphenicol. The isolates were identified using macroscopic, microscopic and genetic features. The seasonal occurrences of the isolates based on open/floor and closed/caged systems were also determined. Results: Fungal isolates recovered from sputum during the dry season were only Aspergillus species, with Aspergillus fumigatus (49.0%) having the highest occurrence, while Aspergillus sp. (64.0%) and Lichthemia (36.0%) were obtained in rainy season. Found in ear are mixed populations of fungi, mainly species of Aspergillus (81.9%), Cunninghamella (6.1%), Paecillomyces (19.0%), Lichtheimia (10.6%), others (26.4%) during dry and rainy seasons. In nasal samples, Aspergillus sp. (94.4%) and Candida sp. (5.6%) were observed in dry season, and species of Aspergillus (47.2%), Lichtheimia (34.4%), Paecillomyces (12.6%) and Fusarium (5.8%) recovered during rainy period. High fungal loads were observed in open/floor system than closed/caged system, and mainly during the rainy season. Conclusion: Poultry farm workers were observed to harbor different fungal organisms in their sputum, nose and ears, and some of them have been implicated in health hazards of the workers, hence the need to train them on good hygienic practices.

Keywords:
poultry farm workers fungal isolates human samples seasonal variation

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