American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajidm Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
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American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2020, 8(3), 99-112
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-8-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Drug Resistance and Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial and Fungal Isolates from Stool Samples in Yaounde, Cameroon

Laure Ngando1, 2, , Leopold Mbous Nguimbus3, 4, Alain Bruno Ndjapou Chedjou5 and Therese Nkoa1

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medecine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

2Laboratory of Bacteriology/Mycology, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaounde, Cameroon

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

4Catholic University of Central Africa, School of Health Science, Yaounde, Cameroon

5Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

Pub. Date: September 07, 2020

Cite this paper:
Laure Ngando, Leopold Mbous Nguimbus, Alain Bruno Ndjapou Chedjou and Therese Nkoa. Drug Resistance and Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial and Fungal Isolates from Stool Samples in Yaounde, Cameroon. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2020; 8(3):99-112. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-8-3-3

Abstract

Background: Intestinal pathologies of bacterial or fungal origin constitute a public health problem all over the world and particularly in developing countries. The diseases associated with these infections, including diarrhea, significantly affect children and continue to be the cause of morbidity and mortality observed in developed countries and even more so in the third world. Objective: The objectives of this study were to present the profile of the germs involved in intestinal infections in Yaounde between 2010 and 2020, to analyze the association between these germs with the sex and age groups of the study subjects and to present the profiles of sensitivity and drug resistance of species isolated from stool samples during the same period. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out from January 04, 2010 to January 07, 2020 in Yaounde at the Centre Pasteur of Cameroon. After collection of stool samples, laboratory analyzes focused on macroscopic study, isolation and identification of bacterial and fungal species and then performing an antimicrobial susceptibility test by the diffusion method. The automated method using the Vitek 2-compact automaton was also used in order to highlight drug susceptibility and resistance profiles. Results: 40,339 stool samples were analyzed during the study period with a prevalence of intestinal infections of 8.1% (3284 samples positive for the presence of a bacterial or fungal species). The male sex was the most represented with 1697 samples (4.2%) against 1484 (3.7%) samples for the female sex. This difference in sex distribution was statistically significant (p<0.001). The age of participants positive for infection ranged from 0-100 years with a mean age of 26.9 years ± 21.3 SD. The most contaminated age group was made up of patients aged less than 20 years, ie 1620 (9.3%) samples for an average age of 8.8 years ± 3.8 SD. The difference in the distribution of the samples by age group was significant (p<0.0001). The bacterial species most represented in the stool samples were: Shigella flexneri (1.16%), Vibrio cholerae (1.14%), Salmonella sp. (0.74%), Escherichia coli (0.62%), Campylobacter sp. (0.15%), Shigella sonnei (0.13%), Shigella sp. (0.11%), Shigella boydii (0.11%), Salmonella enteritidis (0.09%), Salmonella typhimurium (0.09%), Campylobacter jejuni (0.08%), Shigella dysenteriae A2 (0.04%), Salmonella typhi (0.03%), Campylobacter coli (0.03%), Campylobacter lari (0.03%), Salmonella hadar (0.03%) and Shigella dysenteriae A1 (0.03%). Regarding fungi, Candida albicans (2.63%) was the most represented followed by other strains of Candida (Candida sp. with a prevalence of 0.85%). Significant associations of age groups (p<0.0001) and sex (p<0.001) with the organisms isolated were obtained in this study. About 40 antibiotics and 8 antifungals were used. The greatest resistance was observed for drugs which inhibit the synthesis of bacterial envelopes, nucleic acids, folic acid and proteins. The most resistant species were: Shigella flexneri (81.0% resistance to ticarcillin); Campylobacter coli (91.7% resistance to cefatrizine); Campylobacter lari and Vibrio cholerae (100% and 92.4% resistance to nalidixic acid); Shigella dysenteriae A2 and Shigella sonnei (100% and 96.1% resistance to cotrimoxazole); Vibrio cholerae (82.1% resistance to Colistin). For fungi, Candida albicans was the most represented and showed a high sensitivity for most of the antifungal agents used. Conclusion: In the light of the results of this study, it is essential to extend the surveillance of the resistance of strains to antibiotics in other regions of Cameroon to define the therapeutic strategies adapted to the epidemiological data in our context.

Keywords:
intestinal pathologies antimicrobial susceptibility test Vitek 2-compact surveillance Cameroon

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