American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2328-4056 ISSN (Online): 2328-4064 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajidm Editor-in-chief: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2020, 8(2), 75-82
DOI: 10.12691/ajidm-8-2-5
Open AccessArticle

Carrier Status of Salmonella Species Infection among Students in a Tertiarry Institution

Theophilus Kachi Udeani1, , Veronica Ngozi Emenuga1 and Favour Chizaram Sunday1

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: June 10, 2020

Cite this paper:
Theophilus Kachi Udeani, Veronica Ngozi Emenuga and Favour Chizaram Sunday. Carrier Status of Salmonella Species Infection among Students in a Tertiarry Institution. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2020; 8(2):75-82. doi: 10.12691/ajidm-8-2-5

Abstract

Salmonellosis is a major challenge to public health due to its persistence and high rate of recurrence. This study investigated Salmonella infections and associated risk exposures among tertiary students. This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 undergraduate students. Their personal health information and feeding habits were collected using a questionnaire. Fecal specimens were collected and analyzed bacteriologically. The isolates were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility test. Of 100 students enrolled, 38% had Salmonella species. The prevalence rate was Salmonella typhi, 29%, Salmonella. paratyphi A, 6%, and Salmonella enteritidis, 3%. The females accounted for 27% and males 11% of the isolates. The age group of 20-24 years had the highest infection rate. The participants that were not previously diagnosed of Salmonella species infection had a higher carriage rate of 26% than those who were previously diagnosed of typhoid fever (12%), 48% of the students, do not regularly practice hand washing and 63% never had symptoms of typhoid fever. The students patronize food vendors and this accounted for 34% of the Salmonella isolates. Self-medication was associated with the prevalence of Salmonella species (P=0.000; 95% CI). The Salmonella isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin, Cefuroxime and Nitrofurantoin. The carrier rate of Salmonella typhi was high due to antibiotic abuse.

Keywords:
typhoid carrier self-medication community co-habitation antibiotics

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  John S. G., Joanna M.M.,Stephen B., Sabina D.,Richelle C. and Edward T. Salmonella chronic carriage, epidemiology diagnosis & gall bladder persistence. Trends microbial. 2(11). 648-655, (2014).
 
[2]  Harris, J. B. and Brooks, W. A. Typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever. In A. J. Magills, E. T. Ryan, D.R. Hill and T. Solomon (Eds.), Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Disease (9th ed., pp. 568-576). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, (2013).
 
[3]  Eng, S. K., Pusparajah, P., Ab-Mutalib, N. S., Ser, H., Chan, K. G. and Lee, L. H. Salmonella: A review on pathogenesis, epidemiology and antibiotic resistance. Frontiers in Life Science; 8(3): 284-293, (2015).
 
[4]  Global Burden of Diseases: Burden Typhoid and Paratyphoid Collaborators. The global burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Infectious Diseases; 19: 369-381, (2019).
 
[5]  Majowicz, S. E., Musto, J., Scallan, E., Angulo, F. J., Kirk, M., O’Brien, S. J., Jones, T. F., Fazil, A. and Hoekstra, R. M. The global burden of non typhoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. Clinical Infectious Diseases; 50(6):882-889, (2010).
 
[6]  Ifeanyi V.U., Calman A.M. and Allan S. A systematic review of incidence, Risk factor and case fatality rate of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (INTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. PLOS Negi Tropical Diseases. 11(1)118, (2017).
 
[7]  Radhakrishnan, A., Als, D., Mintz, E. D., Crump, J. A., Stanaway, J., Breiman, R. F. and Bhutta, Z. A. Introductory Article on Global Burden and Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 99(3): 4-9, (2018).
 
[8]  Crump, J. A,. Progress in Typhoid Fever Epidemiology. Clinical Infectious Diseases; 68(1): 4-9, (2019).
 
[9]  Painter, J. A., Hoekstra, R. M., Ayers, T., Tauxe, R. V., Braden, C. R., Angulo, F. J. and Griffin, P. M. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998-2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases; 19(3): 407-415, (2013).
 
[10]  World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Salmonella (non-typhoidal) WHO. Retrieved. (2018).
 
[11]  Ao, T. T., Feasey, N. A., Gordon, M. A., Keddy, K. H., Angulo, F. J. and Crump, J. A. Global burden of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases; 21(6): 941-949, (2015).
 
[12]  Ajay K., Abimbola A., Monica H., Anita S and Aliyar C. Development of Salmonellosis as affected by Bioactive food. Microorganisms.; 7(9): 364, (2019).
 
[13]  Pendergast, F. J., Livingstone, K. M., Worsley, A. and McNaughton, S. A. Correlates of meal skipping in young adults: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity; 13: 125, (2016).
 
[14]  Deksissa, T. and Gebremedhin, E. Z. A cross sectional study of enteric fever among febrile patients at Ambo hospital: prevalence, risk factor, comparison of widal test and stool culture and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates. BioMed Central Infectious Diseases; 19: 288-300, (2019).
 
[15]  Crump, J. A., Sjölund-Karlsson, M., Gordon, M. A. and Parry, C. M. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella, (2015).
 
[16]  Lyne S.G, Michael A, Evelyne K. ,Dylan R.P, Gary W.P, Norbert R. Robyn, Y.S. Covinda V. Laboratory diagnosis of Parasites from the Gastrointestinal tract DO1: 10(1128)17-25, (2017).
 
[17]  Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute.(CLSI), Performance standards for Antimicrobial Disk susceptibility: Approved standard (11th edn.). Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory standards institute, (2012).
 
[18]  Udujih, H. I., Edward, U. C., Ibe, S. N. O., Udujih, O. G., Iwuala, C. C. and Kenechukwudozie, Q. C. Salmonella infection among Undergraduate students of Imo State University, Nigeria. International Journal of Health, Safety and Environment; 3(6): 128-133, (2017).
 
[19]  Ishaleku, D., Sar, T. T. and Houmsou, R. S. Salmonella typhi infection in a tertiary institution in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine; 4(2) 137-139, (2011).
 
[20]  Getnet, F., Gebre-Selassie, S., Alemayehu, H., Kassa, T. and Kebede, N. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Food Handlers in Addis Ababa University Students’ Cafeteria, Ethiopia. African Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences; 6(6): 210-216, (2014).
 
[21]  Breiman, R. F., Cosmas, L., Njuguna, H., Audi, A., Olack, B., Ochieng, J. B., Wamola, N., Bigogo, G. M., Awiti, G., Tabu, C. W., Burke, H., Williamson, J., Oundo, J. O., Mintz, E. D. and Feikin, D. R. Population-based incidence of typhoid fever in an urban informal settlement, Nairobi, Kenya: implications for typhoid vaccine use in Africa. Public Library of Science One; 7(1): (2012).
 
[22]  Senthilkumar, B., Senbagam, D. and Rajasekarapandian, M. An epidemiological surveillance of asymptomatic typhoid carriers associated in respect to socioeconomic status in India. Journal of Public Health; 22: 297-301, (2014).
 
[23]  Olubukunola, O. A., Blessing, O. A., Moses, D. O., Olawale, E. C. and Adekunle, B. J. Antibiotic susceptibility and carriage rate of salmonella serotypes among healthy individuals with history of salmonella infection within one year in a University community in Nigeria. Journal of Human Virology and Retrovirology; 3(6): 113-119, (2016).
 
[24]  Akinyemi, K. O., Oshundare, Y. O., Oyeyinka, O. G. and Coker, A. O. A retrospective study of community-acquired Salmonella infections in patients attending public hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal Infection in Developing Countries; 5(6): 387-395, (2012).
 
[25]  Abdulkarim, I. A. and Mohammed, M. U,. Spatio-temporal trends of typhoid fever among youths attending Muhammad Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences; 10(2): 115-121, (2017).
 
[26]  Christopher J, Christopher H and Paul R. Stool Culture. AFP Reproductive health; Vol 41, (10) Pp 775-777, (2012).
 
[27]  Gatechew T. Prevalence of human Salmonellosis in Ethiopia, a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC infectious Diseases. 14(88)6827, (2014).
 
[28]  Donkor, E. E., Tetteh-Quarcoo, P. B., Nartey, P. and Agyeman, I. O. Self-Medication practices with antibiotics among tertiary level students in Accra, Ghana: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Research and Public Health; 9(10):3519-3529, (2012).
 
[29]  Ajibola, O., Omisakin, O. A., Eze, A. A. and Omoleke, S. A., Self-Medication with Antibiotics, Attitude and Knowledge of Antibiotic Resistance among Community Residents and Undergraduate Students in Northwest Nigeria. Diseases, 6(32): 1-14, (2018).
 
[30]  Garedew-Kifelew, L., Wondafrash, N. and Feleke, A. Identification of drug resistant Salmonella from food handlers at the University of Gondar, Ethopia. BioMed Central Research Notes; 7: 545-550, (2014).
 
[31]  Olalekan, A. W., Oluwaseun, F. A. and Oladele, H. A. Prevalence and knowledge of Salmonella infections among food handlers: Implications for school health in Southwestern Nigeria. Sahel Medical Journal; 21: 99-103, (2018).
 
[32]  Abioye, J., Adiuku, B. and Adogo, L. The prevalence of typhoid fever in Bingham University. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences; 1(3): 37-43, (2017).
 
[33]  Pui, C. F., Wong, W. C., Chai, L. C., Tunung, R., Jeyaletchumi, P., Noor-Hidayah, M. S., Ubong, A., Farinazleen, M. G., Cheah, Y. K. and Son, R. Salmonella: A foodborne pathogen. International Food Research Journal; 18: 465-473, (2011).
 
[34]  Gbodo, E. E. and Anumudu, C. K. Prevalence of Salmonella typhi infection among food handlers in Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria and its environs. Journal of Tropical Diseases; 7(4): 315-318, (2019).
 
[35]  Harriet W and Kirstin R. Salmonella and Eggs; from production to plate. Int. Journal Environmental Res & Public Health; 12(3) 2543-2556, (2015).
 
[36]  Edema, M. O., Atayese, A. O. and Bankole, M. O. Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of sachet- packed drinking water sold in Nigeria. African Journal of Food Agriculture, Nutrition and Development; 11(1): 4595-4609, (2011).
 
[37]  Mijovic, G., Andric, B., Terzic, D., Lopicic, M. and Dupanovic, B. Antibiotic susceptibility of salmonella spp: A comparison of two surveys with a 5 years interval. Journal of International Medical Association of Bulgaria-Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers); 18(1): 216-219, (2012).
 
[38]  Taha, R. R., Alghalibi, S. M. and Saeed-Saleh, M. G. Salmonella spp. in patients suffering from enteric fever and food poisoning in Thamar city, Yemen. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal; 19(1): 88-92, (2013).