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Article

Effect of Germination Temperature on the Functional Properties of Grain Amaranthus

1Product Development Programme, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(2), 76-79
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Paulina Oludoyin ADENIYI, Veronica A. OBATOLU. Effect of Germination Temperature on the Functional Properties of Grain Amaranthus. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(2):76-79. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-5.

Correspondence to: Paulina  Oludoyin ADENIYI, Product Development Programme, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria. Email: doyinadeniyi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Grain amaranthus in its ordinary state may be modified by germination to perform extraordinary role as emulsifier for our fast- growing food industry with a concomitant increase in food production to satisfy the ever-increasing population of the world with its associated food insecurity. Hence, this study aimed at determining the optimum germination temperature for the maximum improvement of the functional properties of grain amaranthus with the view of using this as an emulsifier in food processing. The dry grains were germinated at 30oC, 32oC, 34oC, 36oC, 38oC, 40oC and designated as T30, T32, T34, T36, T38, T40 respectively and T00 for the negative control. The water and oil absorption capacities (WAC and OAC) were determined by centrifuging the samples in water and then groundnut oil . The emulsifying capacity (EC) and emulsion stability (ES) were determined by homogenizing the samples in groundnut oil and later centrifuging. Result was expressed as mean and Analysis of Variance and Least Significant Difference were was used for comparison. The WAC increased from 107.58% in T00 to 118.97% in T30 with the peak value of 124.94% in T40. The OAC increased from 31.07% in the negative control to 33.13% in T30 with the peak value of 35.96% in T38. The emulsifying capacity was 2.0 1% in T00 and increased to 24.63% in T30. This property increased with increase in germination temperature to the maximum value of 31.17% in T40. The emulsion stability ranged between 1.20% in T00 to 2.31% in T36. Foam capacity in the negative control was zero and in T30 was 3.99% while the peak value was 8.45% in T32. The Hydrophile:Lipophile Balance (HLB) ranged between 3.28 in T38 to 4.16 in T40 which was higher than that of standard emulsifier, lecithin, with the value of 4.0. This shows that germinated grain amaranth may exhibit the same or even better emulsifying properties than lecithin which is a universal emulsifier even though it may not exert appreciable foaming properties where this is required.

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References

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Article

Influence of Chemical Properties of Wheat-Lupine Flour Blends on Cake Quality

1Faculty of Specific Education, Home Economics Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Institute for Food Technology and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Rheology, Technical University of Berlin, Sekr, KL-H1, Königin-Luise-Str, Berlin / Germany


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(2), 67-75
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Abdelrahman R. Ahmed. Influence of Chemical Properties of Wheat-Lupine Flour Blends on Cake Quality. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(2):67-75. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Abdelrahman  R. Ahmed, Faculty of Specific Education, Home Economics Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Email: abdohat1@yahoo.com

Abstract

Legumes have interesting nutritional properties and their inclusion in diet is encouraged; their incorporation into bakery products could be a good method for increasing consumption. In this study, the influence of the partial replacement of wheat flour by lupine flour on the quality characteristics of butter cake was analyzed. In the present study, three different concentrations (5, 10 and 15 % as a substitution of wheat flour) of lupine flour were used. Lupine flour showed higher levels of moisture, crude protein, ash, crude fat and dietary fiber than the wheat flour. The lupine flour showed higher levels of phenolic and flavonoids than the wheat flour. Conversely, wheat flour showed higher levels of total flavonols. Results clearly indicate that lupine flour exhibited higher antioxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS than the wheat flour. Essential amino acids (lysine, threonine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophane) in lupine flour were higher than those in wheat flour except methionine content which was higher in wheat flour (1.7 g/kg). A sensory acceptability of the cake is satisfactory up to 10 % concentration of lupine flour given. Even though deterioration in the structural formation in the batter system after the addition of lupine flour were detected that the blends have relatively good structure due to dominance of wheat to bake acceptable, protein enriched consumable cake. Finally, lupine flour up to 10% can be used successfully in bakery products. This could be utilized for the development of composite blends from locally produced lupine at small scale industry level as value-add products.

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References

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Article

Influence of Differences in Materials, the Dimensions and Scape of the Material Undergoing Drying on the Drying Process

1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Belgrade, Serbia

2Serbiagas, Belgrade, Serbia

3Energoprojekt, Belgrade, Serbia


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(2), 62-66
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Radivoje M. Topić, Goran R. Topić, Jelena R. Topić. Influence of Differences in Materials, the Dimensions and Scape of the Material Undergoing Drying on the Drying Process. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(2):62-66. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: Radivoje  M. Topić, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Belgrade, Serbia. Email: rtopic@mas.bg.ac.rs

Abstract

In this paper an original solution of a small capacity infrared dryer for home use for drying biological material is given. The dryer is transportable, with small dimensions and is characterized by a cylindrically shaped drying chamber. An infrared heater is placed in the center of the dryer. Five vertical cylinders with perforated walls for placing material in the drying process are positioned around the heater. Due to the construction of the mechanical transporter in the drying process the cylinders rotate around their vertical axis, thus leading to more uniform heating of the material volume and a stage radiation regime. The dryer dimensions are: maximal width 320 mm and height 450 mm. The dryer capacity of moist material is around 2, 5 kg. In the paper has defined the mathematical models for analysis of the influence of the material types, shape and dimensions of the surface undergoing on the drying process. Based on analytical equation, defined of the mathematical models, and drying kinetics were defined based on experimental results drying process of apples in infrared and convective dryer small capacity, gives the graphical dependence and corresponding analysis.

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References

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[[3]  Topić M. R., Development and advancement technology and solution for infrared drying biological materials based electrical energy as the heat source, project- NP EE 306 - 74 B, Belgrade, S& MN. 2002.
 
[[4]  Topić, M. R. Small capacity Mobile Dryers for Drying Biological Materials, Proceedings of the 13th International Drying Symposium, Vol. C. (2002), pp. 1504.
 
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Article

Development and Validation of Multi-Residue Analysis of 82 Pesticides in Grapes and Pomegranate as per the Requirements of the European Union (EU) and Codex Alimentarius Using GC-MS/MS with Compound Based Screening

1University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, GGS Indraprastha University, Delhi, India

2University School of Biotechnology, GGS Indraprastha University, Delhi, India


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(2), 53-61
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gouri Satpathy, Yogesh Kumar Tyagi, Rajinder Kumar Gupta. Development and Validation of Multi-Residue Analysis of 82 Pesticides in Grapes and Pomegranate as per the Requirements of the European Union (EU) and Codex Alimentarius Using GC-MS/MS with Compound Based Screening. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(2):53-61. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Yogesh  Kumar Tyagi, University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, GGS Indraprastha University, Delhi, India. Email: drytyagi@gmail.com

Abstract

The Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) multiresidue method has been validated for the extraction of 82 pesticides belonging to various chemical classes from grapes and pomegranate (commodities with high sugar and low lipid contents). A mixture of 82 pesticides amenable to gas chromatography (GC) was quantitatively recovered from spiked grapes and pomegranate and determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method employed involved initial extraction in a water/ethyl acetate system, an extraction/partitioning step after the addition of salt, and a cleanup step utilizing dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE); this combination ensured that it was a rapid, simple and cost-effective procedure. The method setup is streamlined with the new software approach of Compound Based Scanning (CBS). The matrix-matched calibration results have demonstrated good reproducibility, robustness and linearity. The spiking levels for the recovery experiments were 0.005, 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg-1 for GC-MS/MS analyses. Adequate pesticide quantification and identity confirmation were attained, even at the lowest concentration levels, considering the high signal-to-noise ratios, the very good accuracies and precisions, as well as the good matches between the observed ion ratios. Mean recoveries mostly ranged between 70 and 110 % (91% on average), and RSD were generally below 12% (7.3% on average). The use of analyte protectants during GC analysis was demonstrated to provide a good alternative to the use of matrix-matched standards to minimize matrix-effect-related errors. For all compounds LODs were 0.001 to 0.005 mgkg-1 and LOQs were 0.005 to 0.020 mgkg-1. Correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.991. Based on these results, the methodology has been proven to be highly efficient and robust and thus suitable for monitoring the Maximum Residual Limit (MRL) compliance of a wide range of commodity/pesticide combinations.

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References

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Article

Insoluble Vegetable Fiber as a Potential Functional Ingredient: Invitro Studies on Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic Effect

1Food Engineering and Technology Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai, India


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(2), 48-52
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Dhiraj D. Gohil, S. S. Lele. Insoluble Vegetable Fiber as a Potential Functional Ingredient: Invitro Studies on Hypoglycemic and Hypocholesterolemic Effect. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(2):48-52. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: S.  S. Lele, Food Engineering and Technology Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai, India. Email: dr.smita.lele@gmail.com

Abstract

Vegetable and fruit derived fibre plays a crucial role in promoting good health. Soluble and insoluble fiber has different physiological roles in human body. Insoluble fiber is known for having several beneficial effects like anti-constipating, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic. In the present study, insoluble dietary fiber from vegetables viz., Nelumbo nucifera, Murraya koenigii, Abelmoschus esculentus and Brassica oleracea were investigated in vitro for their hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effect. The hypoglycemic effect was studied by measuring glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion and amylase inhibitory activity whereas hypocholesterolemic effect was observed by bile salt (Sodium cholate) adsorption study. Results indicate that N. nucifera exerts significanteffect on glucose adsorption (7.40 ± 0.14 mmol/g) and amylase inhibitory activity (13.19 ± 0.66 %). Similarly glucose diffusion studies showed low diffusion values in case of N. nucifera as compared to others up to an hour. Also, N. nucifera showed highest sodium cholate binding capacity (10.11 ± 0.20 %) compared to other fibres when cellulose was used as a control. Thus, this study suggests that insoluble fibre from N. nucifera can be used for fortification of functional food products aimed at controlling glucose and cholesterol level.

Keywords

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