American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
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American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018, 6(6), 247-252
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-6-6-3
Open AccessArticle

Quality Characteristics of Cookies Prepared from Wheat and Fermented Afzelia Africana Flour

Bibiana Igbabul1, , Ruth Ogunleye1 and Julius Amove1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

Pub. Date: October 26, 2018

Cite this paper:
Bibiana Igbabul, Ruth Ogunleye and Julius Amove. Quality Characteristics of Cookies Prepared from Wheat and Fermented Afzelia Africana Flour. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018; 6(6):247-252. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-6-6-3


This study was carried out to evaluate the quality characteristics and acceptability of cookies produced from wheat flour and fermented Afzelia africana flour blends in various proportions (100:0 (sample A and control), 90:10 (sample B), 80:20 (sample C), 70:30 (sample D) and 60:40 (sample E). The proximate, physical, mineral, vitamin and sensory properties were determined. The result of the proximate composition showed that there was significant increase (P<0.05) in the protein (6.08 to 12.33%), fibre (1.88 to 5.89%), ash (1.35 to 3.02%), fat (19.29 to 27.06%) and energy (431.29 to 458.78kcal). The carbohydrate content decreased with the addition of fermented Afzelia africana flour and ranged from 41.48-58.34% while the value for the moisture content varies from 9.39 to 13.06% which decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in fermented africana flour. The physical properties were ; the diameter (12.25 to 13.50mm), thickness (12.25 to 13.50mm), Weight (19.75 to 18.20g) and spread ratio (3.30 to 3.83) of the cookies. The minerals and vitamins increased significantly at (P<0.05) with the addition of Afzelia africana flour. The result ranged as follows; iron (1.67 to 3.00mg/100g), calcium (15.21 to 116.03mg/100g), zinc (0.55 to 2.98mg/100g), potassium (55.86 to 388.68mg/100g), beta-carotene (1.54 to 2.08mg/100g), vitamin C (0.01 to 0.92mg/100g). The sensory scores showed that cookies produced from 100% wheat flour (sample A and control) compared favourably with the cookies from 90% wheat flour and 10% fermented Afzelia africana flour (sample B), 80% wheat flour and 20% fermented Afzelia africana(sample C), 70% wheat flour and 30% fermented Afzelia africana(sample D), 60% wheat flour and 40% fermented Afzelia africana(sample E) . All the cookies were generally acceptable and scored above 5 on the 9-point Hedonic scale. Therefore wheat flour can be substituted up to 40% fermented Afzelia Africana flour in baking depending on the nutritional needs. This would enhance the utilization of this underutilized crop and help to increase protein, energy and decrease malnutrition problem in developing countries.

wheat flour fermented Afzelia Africana flour cookies

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