American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajfst Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018, 6(1), 26-32
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-6-1-5
Open AccessReview Article

Assessment of the Effect of Processing Methods on the Proximate Composition of Trachurus trachurus (Mackerel) Sold in Anyigba Market, Kogi State

Okpanachi M.A.1, Yaro C.A.1, and Bello O.Z.1

1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Kogi State University, Anyigba

Pub. Date: January 09, 2018

Cite this paper:
Okpanachi M.A., Yaro C.A. and Bello O.Z.. Assessment of the Effect of Processing Methods on the Proximate Composition of Trachurus trachurus (Mackerel) Sold in Anyigba Market, Kogi State. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018; 6(1):26-32. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-6-1-5

Abstract

The effects of different preservation methods (fresh, boiled, fried and smoked) on the nutritional composition, mineral composition and vitamins in Trachurus trachurus were determined according to AOAC . All processing methods revealed significant difference (p<0.05) in the various nutritional, mineral and vitamin composition. Boiling had the highest moisture content (60.01%), frying had the highest ash content (2.45%). Fresh fish had the highest level of fibre (0.07%), protein (3.86%) and carbohydrate (9.70%). Among the methods of preservation, boiled fish had the highest protein (22.71%), carbohydrate (8.20%) and smoked fish had the highest fat of 20.35%. Comparing all the methods of preservation, the fish samples had variable quantity of the various nutritional components measured. It is therefore recommended that consumers should check the appropriate diet need and go for the method of preservation that provides the best nutrient as all the methods are recommended.

Keywords:
preservation trachurus vitamins nutrients

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Association of Official Analytical Chemists-AOAC (1984). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 14. ed. Arlington, 1141.
 
[2]  Silva, R.C.; Cotting, L.N.; Poltronieri, T.P.; Balcão, V.M.; De Almeida, D.B.; Goncalves, L.A.G.; Grimaldi, R. AND Gioielli, L.A. (2009), The Effects of Enzymatic Inter-esterification on the Physical Chemical Properties of Blends of Lard and Soybean Oil. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 42(7), 1275-1282.
 
[3]  Murray, J. and J.R. Burt, 1991. The composition of fish. Tory Advisory Note No. 38, Ministry of Technology, Torry Research Station, pp: 13.
 
[4]  AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1980. Official method of analysis. 15th Edn., Washington D.C.
 
[5]  Harris, E., 1979. Nutritional Research Techniques for Domestic and wild Animals. S. I. Utah publishing co. utah, U.S.A. 150 pp.
 
[6]  Effiong, B.N and Mohammed, I (2008) Effect of seasonal variation on the nutrient composition in selected fish species in Lake Kainji, Nigeria.Nature andScience.Vol 6 (2) Pp 1-5.
 
[7]  Mumba, P.P., and Jose, M., (2005). Nutrient composition of selected fresh and processed fish species from Lake Malawi, A nutritional possibility for people living with Hiv/Aids. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 29(1): 72-77.
 
[8]  Abdullahi, S.A., 2001. Nutritional Evaluation of three species of the fish family Mochokidae.(Synodontis membranaceus, Synodontis melanopterus and Synodontis filamentosus From Northern Nigeria. Niger. J. Sci. Res., 8, 48-51.
 
[9]  Puwastien P, Judprasong k, Kettwan E, Vasanachitt K, Y. Nakngamanong, Bhattacharjee L (1999). Proximate Composition of Raw and Cooked Thai Freshwater and Marine Fish. J. Food Composition Anal., 12: 9-16.
 
[10]  Gokoglu, N., P. Yerlikaya, and E. Cengiz. 2004. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and mineral contents of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
 
[11]  Tao W, M Linchun (2008). Influences of Hot Air Drying and Microwave Drying on Nutritional and Odorous Properties of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) Fillets. Food Chem., 110(3): 647-653.
 
[12]  Stansby ME (1982). Properties of fish oils and their application to handling of fish and to nutritional and industrial use. In: Martin, RE, Flick GJ, Hebard, CE., & Ward, DR Eds Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products. pp. 75-92. Avi Publishing Co., Westport, CT.
 
[13]  Ackman RG (1989).Nutritional composition of fats in seafood.Progress Food Nutr. Sci., 13: 161-289.
 
[14]  Allen, J.C. (1987). Industrial aspects of lipids oxidation: In Recent Advances in Chemistry and Technology of Fats and Oil. Hamilton, R.J., Bhati, A., Eds; Elsevier; London pp 31-39.
 
[15]  Frankel, E.N. (1991). Recent advances in lipid oxidation. J. Sci. Foof Agric. 57: 65-75.
 
[16]  Oparaku NF, Nwaka FC. Effect of processing on the nutritional qualities of three fish species (Synodontis clarias, Trachurus trecae  and Clarias gariepinus ). International Journal of Biology and Biological Sciences. 2013;2(10): 143-1.
 
[17]  Olagunju, A. 2012. Nutrient Composition of Tilapia zilli, Hemisynodontis membranacea, Clupea harengus and Scomber scombrus Consumed in Zaria. World Journal of Life Science and Medical Research. 2:16 pp.
 
[18]  Adeyemi O.T., Osilesi O.O., Onajobi F., Adebawo O.O., Oyedemi S.O. and A. J. Afolayan (2013). Stability Study of Smoked Fish, Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) by Different Methods and Storage at Room Temperature. African Journal of Biochemistry Research, 7 (6), 98-106.
 
[19]  Adewoye, S.O., Fawole O.O. and Omotosho J.S., 2003. Concentrations of selected elements in some freshwater fishes in Nigeria. Sci. Focus, 4: 106-108.
 
[20]  Fawole, O.O., M.A. Ogundiran, T.A. Ayandiran and O.F. Olagunju, 2007. Mineral Composition in some selected fresh water fishes in Nigeria. J. Food Safety, 9: 52-55.
 
[21]  Turan, M., S. Kordali, H. Zengin, A. Dursun and Y. Sezen, 2003. Macro and micro-mineral content of some wild edible leaves consumed in Eastern Anatolia. Acta Agric. Scand. Sect. B, Plant Soil Sci., 53: 129-137.
 
[22]  Okaka, J.C. and A.N.O. Okaka, 2001. Food composition, spoilage and shelf life extension. Ocjarco Academic Publishers, Enugu, Nig., pp: 54-56.
 
[23]  Adeyeye, E.I. and Adamu, A.S. (2005). Chemical composition and food properties of Gymnarchus niloticus (trunk fish). Biosci. Biotech. Res. Asia 3: 265-272.
 
[24]  Dahl, L.K., 1972. Salt and hypertension. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 25: 231-238.
 
[25]  Abaunza, P., Gordo, L., Kalrlou-Riga, C., Murta, A., Eltink, A.T.G.W., Santamaria, M.T.G., Zimmermann, C., Hammer, C., Lucio, P., Iversen, S.A., Molloy, J. and Gallo, E. (2003). Growth and reproduction of horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Carangidae. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 13(1): 27-61.
 
[26]  Abisoye, F.B., Remi, S.A., Adeseye, O.O., Motoloni, M.S., Olaitan, O.O., Gbola, R., 2011. Proximates and mineral composition in the flesh of five commercial fish species in Nigeria. Int. J. food Safety., Volume 3, 208-213.
 
[27]  Adekoya BB, Miller JW (2004). Fish Cage Culture Potential in Nigeria-An Overview. National Cultures. Agric. Focus, 15: 10.
 
[28]  AOAC (1979). Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis (14 ed.) Arlington, VA.
 
[29]  AOAC. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analysis Chemists. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Ed. Washington.
 
[30]  AOAC. (1995). Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, Arlington, VA.
 
[31]  AOCS (1979). Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. Vol. 1, AOCS, Champaign, IL.
 
[32]  Corten, A. and Van de Kamp, G. (1996). Variation in the abundance of Southern fish species in the southern North Sea in relation to hydrography and wind. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 53: 1113-1119.
 
[33]  Dahl, K. and Kirkegaard, E. (1986). Stomach content of mackerel, horse mackerel and whiting in the eastern part of the North Sea in July 1985. ICES-CM 1986/H: 68, 17 pp.
 
[34]  Dahl, K. and Kirkegaard, E. (1986). The diet and consumption of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the eastern North Sea, August, 1986. ICES CM 1987/H: 43. 23 pp.
 
[35]  Eaton, D.R. (1983). Scad in the North-East Atlantic MAFF Laboratory Leaflet, 56: 1-20.
 
[36]  Eltink, A. (1991). Horse mackerel egg production and spawning stock size in the North Sea in 1990. ICES CM 1991/H: 27, 14 pp.
 
[37]  Felix, O.A (2014) Effects of Smoking and Freezing on the Nutritive Value of African Mud Catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822.
 
[38]  Horse mackerel egg production and spawning stock size in the North Sea in 1990.
 
[39]  ICES (1990). Report of the Mackerel Working Group. ICES CM 1990/Assess. 19. 109 pp.
 
[40]  ICES (1990). Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of the Stocks of Sardine. Horse Mackerel and Anchovy, ICES CM 1990/Assess: 24. 123 pp.
 
[41]  ICES (1991). Working group on the assessment of the stocks of Sardine, Horse Mackerel, and Anchovy. ICES CM 1991/Assess: 22. 138 pp.
 
[42]  ICES C.M. 1991/H:27 14pp (mirneo).
 
[43]  Iversen, S.A., Skogen, M.D., and Svendsen, E. 2002. Availability of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the north-eastern North Sea, predicted by the transport of Atlantic water. Fisheries Oceanography, 11(4): 245-250.
 
[44]  Kjedahl, J. (1883). Determination of protein nitrogen in food products. Encyclopedia of Food Science. 1883: 439-441.
 
[45]  Linnaeus 1758. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition of black sea anchovy. GIDA. 2011;36(2):71-75.
 
[46]  Macer, C.T. (1974). The reproductive biology of the horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (L.) in the North Sea and English Channel. J. Fish Biol., 6(4): 415-438.
 
[47]  Macer, C.T. (1977). Some aspects of the biology of the horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus L.) in waters around Britain. Journal of Fish Biology. 10: 51 -62.
 
[48]  Ogundiran, M. A., (2014). Heavy metal, proximate and microbial profile of some selected commercial marine fish collected from two markets in south western, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 13(10), 1147-1153.
 
[49]  Olaniyi, A.O. (2015) Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) from Two Different Culture Facilities.
 
[50]  Pipe, R.K., and Walker, P. 1987. The effect of temperature on development and hatching of scad, Trachurus trachurus L., eggs. Journal of Fish Biology 31: 675-682.
 
[51]  Rahji, M. A. Y., & Bada, T. (2010). Frozen fish markets and marketing problems in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science, 2(3), 39-48.
 
[52]  Russell, F.S. (1976). The eggs and planktonic stages of British marine fishes. Academic Press, London. 524 pp.
 
[53]  Smith-Vaniz, W.F. (1986). Carangidae. In: Fishes of the North Eastern atlantic and the Mediterranean Volume II (Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.L., Hurreau, J.C., Neilsen, J., and Tortonese, E. (Eds.) UNESCO, paris, 815-844.
 
[54]  Steffens W (2006). Freshwater fish-wholesome foodstuffs. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 12: 320-328.