American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
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American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017, 5(6), 256-264
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-5-6-6
Open AccessArticle

Mineral Bioavailability, Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Granola Produced from Different Cereals and Processing Methods

Eke-Ejiofor J1, , Beleya E.A1 and Onyekwe J. C1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu Oroworukwo P.M.B.5080, Port Harcourt

Pub. Date: November 29, 2017

Cite this paper:
Eke-Ejiofor J, Beleya E.A and Onyekwe J. C. Mineral Bioavailability, Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Granola Produced from Different Cereals and Processing Methods. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 5(6):256-264. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-6-6


Twelve breakfast cereals were formulated. Eight of them were baked with four samples having sugar and four with date fruit as sugar replacer, while the last four extruded. Yellow maize granola with sugar was used as control. The samples were subjected to sensory, chemical and functional analysis as well as mineral bioavailability. Sensory analysis showed a significant difference (p≤0.05) in color, taste, flavor, texture and overall acceptability for baked product while for extruded samples; there was a significant difference in color, taste and flavor with no significant difference (p≥0.05) in texture and overall acceptability. Samples produced with date showed an increase in the ash, fat, protein and energy contents with a decrease in moisture content except the maize products which showed a decrease in their fat contents. The result also showed that the extrusion process increased crude fiber, carbohydrate and starch with very low fat and moisture content, with a reverse in the sugar baked granola. Functional analysis of the samples showed an increase in swelling power and water absorption capacity with the date baked granola, but not statistically different (p≥0.05). Mineral analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) investigated calcium, sodium, iron, magnesium and potassium as well as bioavailability of minerals studied using Pepsin and Pancreatin enzymes in an in–vitro digestion method. The products were high in calcium, sodium and potassium and very low in iron. However not all the minerals detected were bioavailable. A mineral range of 87.36 - 91.29% and 87.04 - 88.13% of sodium and potassium were available in soluble forms in sugar baked granola, while 69.93 - 73.38% and 87.04 - 88.13% of sodium and potassium in date containing products and a decrease of 46.85 - 70.50% and 73.02 - 90.25% for sodium and potassium in extruded products. This study showed that the production of granola from locally available cereals and inclusion of date fruit gave a desirable product with improved nutritional values.

granola cereals processing method physico-chemical mineral bioavailability sensory

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