American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017, 5(5), 199-203
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-5-5-5
Open AccessArticle

Thermal Degradation of Anthocyanins in Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) Flower Extract at pH 7

Abdullah Muzi Marpaung1, 2, Nuri Andarwulan1, 3, , Purwiyatno Hariyadi1, 3 and Didah Nur Faridah1, 3

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

2Food Technology Department, Swiss German University Tangerang, Indonesia

3Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia

Pub. Date: September 26, 2017

Cite this paper:
Abdullah Muzi Marpaung, Nuri Andarwulan, Purwiyatno Hariyadi and Didah Nur Faridah. Thermal Degradation of Anthocyanins in Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) Flower Extract at pH 7. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 5(5):199-203. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-5-5


The degradation of anthocyanins from Clitoria ternatea L. flower (CT) extract at pH 7 bottled with 0% and 50% volume of headspace (HS0 and HS50, respectively) were studied at various temperatures (7, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90°C). The extract was stable at 7°C up to 56 days. The effect of the presence of headspace to accelerate the degradation was significance at ≥30°C. The color and chemical degradation were adequately be described by the first order reaction kinetics. However, the degradation at 30°C was faster than at 45°C. The activation energy for the chemical degradation of HS0 and HS50 extracts at 45-90°C were 83.21 and 101.15 kJ/mol. The decrease of A628 was the fastest, followed by A580 and A550, respectively. By the evidence collected, it was proposed that the degradation of anthocyanins in CT extract was initiated by the unfolding and the deacylation of anionic quinonoidal base species.

anthocyanins butterfly pea degradation heat headspace

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Goto T. and Kondo, T, “Structure and molecular stacking of anthocyanins-flower colour variation,” Angewandte chemie international edition. (English), 30. 17-33. Jan. 1991.
[2]  Yoshida, K., Mori, M, and Kondo, T, “Blue flower colour development by anthocyanins: from chemical structure to cell physiology,” Natural product reports, 26. 884-915. 2009.
[3]  Bakowska-Barczak, A, “Acylated anthocyanins as stable, natural food colourants - a review,” Polish journal of food nutrition. Sciences, 14(2). 107-116. 2005.
[4]  Mohamad M.F., Nasir, S.N.S and Sarmidi, M.R, “Degradation kinetics and colour of anthocyanins in aqueous extracts of butterfly pea,” Asian journal of food and agro-industry, 4(05). 306-315. 2011.
[5]  Lee, P. M, Abdullah, R., Lee, K. H. Thermal degradation of blue anthocyanin extracts of Clitoria ternatea flower. In 2nd International conference on biotechnology and food science IPCBEE, 7, 49-53. 2011.
[6]  Marpaung, A.M., Andarwulan, N, and Prangdimurti, E, “Optimization of anthocyanin pigment extraction from butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) petal using response surface methodology,” Acta Horticulturae, 1011. 205-211. 2013.
[7]  Terahara, N., Saito, N., Honda, T., Toki, K, and Osajima, Y, “Structure of ternatin A1, the largest ternatin in the major blue anthocyanins from Clitoria ternatea flowers,” Tetrahedron letters, 31. 2921-2924. 1990.
[8]  Abdullah, R., Lee, P. M. and Lee, K.H, “Multiple colour and pH stability of floral anthocyanin extract: Clitoria ternatea,”.in International Conference on Science and Social Research, Kuala Lumpur. December 5-7. 2010.
[9]  Marpaung A.M., Andarwulan, N., Hariyadi, P, and Faridah, D.N, “The colour degradation of anthocyanin-rich extract from butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) petal in various solvents at pH 7,” Natural product research, 31(19): 2273-2280. Sep. 2017.
[10]  Trouillas, P., Sancho-García, J.C., De Freitas, V., Gierschner, J., Otyepka, M, and Dangles, O, “Stabilizing and modulating colour by copigmentation: insight from theory and experiments,” Chemical reviews, 116. 4937-4986. Mar. 2016.
[11]  Cisse, M., Vaillant, F., Kane, A., Ndiaye, O. and Dornier, M, “Impact of the extraction procedure on the kinetics of anthocyanin and colour degradation of roselle extracts during storage,” Journal of the science of food and agriculture, 92. 1214-1221. Apr. 2012.
[12]  Azima, S., Noriham, A.M. and Manshoor, N, “Anthocyanin content in relation to the antioxidant activity and colour properties of Garcinia mangostana peel, Syzygium cumini and Clitoria ternatea extracts,” International food research journal, 21(6). 2369-2375. Jun. 2014.
[13]  Maa, Y.F, and Hsu, C.C, “Protein denaturation by combined effect of shear and air-liquid interface,” Biotechnology and bioengineering, 54. 504-512. Jun. 1997.
[14]  Yano, Y. F., Arakawa, E., Voegali, W., and Matsushita, T. Real-time investigation of protein unfolding at an air-water interface at the 1 s time scale. Journal of synchrotron radiation, 20. 980-983. Oct. 2013.
[15]  Mauri, S., Weidner, T, and Arnolds H, “The structure of insulin at the air/water interface: monomers or dimers?,” Physical chemistry chemical physics, 16. 26722-26724. Nov. 2014.
[16]  Leiske, D.L., Shieh, I.C. and Tse, M.L, “A method to measure protein unfolding at an air−liquid interface,” Langmuir, 32(39). 9930-9937. Sep. 2016.
[17]  Krayukhina, E., Tsumoto, K., Uchiyama, S. and Fukui, K, “Effects of syringe material and silicone oil lubrication on the stability of pharmaceutical proteins,” Journal of pharmaceutical science,104. 527-535. Feb. 2014.
[18]  Tiwari, B.K., O’Donnell, C.P., Patras, A., Brunton, N, and Cullen, P.J, “Effect of ozone processing on anthocyanins and ascorbic acid degradation of strawberry juice,” Food chemistry, 113. 1119-1126. Apr. 2009.
[19]  Ma, C., Yang, L., Yang, F., Wang, W., Zhao, C, and Zu, Y, “Content and color stability of anthocyanins isolated from Schisandra chinensis fruit. International journal of molecular science, 13(11). 14294-14310. Nov. 2012.
[20]  Cao, S.Q., Liu, L. and Pan, S.Y, “Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins and visual colour of blood orange juice. Agricultural science in China, 10. 1992-1997. Dec. 2011.
[21]  Sadilova, E., Carle, R., and Stintzing, F.C, “Thermal degradation of anthocyanins and its impact on colour and in vitro antioxidant capacity,” Molecular nutrition and food research, 51. 1461-1471. Dec. 2007.
[22]  Marquez, O, and Waliszewski, K.N, “The effect of thermal treatment on -glucosidase inactivation in vanilla bean (Vanilla planifolia Andrews). International journal of food science and technology, 43. 1993-1999. Oct. 2008.
[23]  Bai, H., Wang, H., Sun, J., Irfan, M., Han, M., Huang, Y., Han, X. and Qian, Y, “Production, purification, and characterization of novel betaglucosidase from newly isolated Penicillium simplicissimum H-11 in submerged fermentation,” EXCLI journal, 12. 528-540. Jun. 2013.
[24]  Dias, C.L., Ala-Nissila, T., Wong-ekkabut, J., Vattulainen, I., Grant, M. and Karttunen, M, The hydrophobic effect and its role in cold denaturation,” Cryobiology, 6. 91-99. Feb. 2010.
[25]  Patel, A.J., Varilly, P., Jamdagni, S.M., Acharya, H., Garde, S, and Chandler, D, “Extended surfaces modulate hydrophobic interactions neighbouring solutes,” in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(43). 17678-17683. 2011.
[26]  Sousa, A., Araujo, P., Cruz, L., Bras, N.F., Mateus, N, and De Freitas, V, “Evidence for copigmentation interactions between deoxyanthocyanidin derivatives (oaklins) and common copigments in wine model solutions,” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 62. 6995-7001. Jan. 2014.