American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017, 5(2), 45-52
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-5-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Copigmentation Effect of Some Phenolic Acids on Stabilization of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Anthocyanin Extract

Magda S. Sharara1,

1Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Pub. Date: February 15, 2017

Cite this paper:
Magda S. Sharara. Copigmentation Effect of Some Phenolic Acids on Stabilization of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Anthocyanin Extract. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017; 5(2):45-52. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-5-2-3


The present study aimed at utilization of copigmentation phenomenon to increase the stability of anthocyanin in roselle extract during storage at 10°C for 60 days by the addition of some phenolic acids (ferulic, cinnamic and coumaric) as a copigments and investigate the possibility of using copigmented extracts as a natural food colorants instead of harmful synthetic ones. The data obtained confirmed that addition of the aforementioned phenolic acids to roselle anthocyanin extracts resulted in an increment of anthocyanin and color stability during storage comparing with the control extract. At the end of storage period, the reduction in anthocyanin content were 31.53, 20.48, 9.31 and 5.52% for control and extracts copigmented with ferulic, cinnamic coumaric acids respectively. Addition of phenolic acids to roselle extract also attributed to a hyperchromic effect and bathochromic shift in visible absorption spectra of copigmented extracts compared to the control. Roselle anthocyanin extracts treated with phenolic acids showed a noticeable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with control extract. Marshmallow prepared from studied copigmented roselle extracts as a natural colorants was highly accepted by panelists.

anthocyanin antimicrobial activity antioxidant activity copigmentation hibiscus sabdariffa

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Eslaminejad, T. and Zakaria, M., “Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang Malaysia,” Microbial Pathogenesis, 51(5). 325-337. Nov.2011.
[2]  Bridle, P., and Timberlake, C.F., “Anthocyanins as natural food colors – selected aspects,” Food Chemistry, 58(1-2). 103-109. Jan-Feb. 1997.
[3]  Wang, M.L., Morris, B., Tonnis, B., Davis, J., and Pederson, G.A., “Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(26). 6620-6626. Jul.2012.
[4]  Rocha, I, D., Bonnlaender, B, Sievers, H., Pischel, I., and Heinrich, M., “Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – A phytochemical and pharmacological review,” Food Chemistry, 165 (15). 424-443. Dec.2014.
[5]  Ramirez-Rodrigues, M.M., Plaza, M.L., Azeredo, A., Balaban, M.O. and Marshall, M.R., “Physicochemical and phytochemical properties of cold and hot water extraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa,” Journal of Food Science, 76(3). C428-C435. Apr. 2011.
[6]  Gracia, M.T.S., Heinonen, M., and Frankel, E.N., “Anthocyanin as antioxidants on human low-density lipoprotein and lecithin liposome systems,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45(9). 3362-3367. Sep.1997.
[7]  Francis, F. J., “Anthocyanins as food colors, Food Technology. 29(5). 52-54. 1975.
[8]  Aishah, B., Nursabrina, M., Noriham, A., Norizzah, A.R., and Mohamad Shahrimi, H., “Anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa, Melastoma malabathricum and Ipomoea batatas and its color properties,” International Food Research Journal, 20(2). 827-834. 2013.
[9]  Francis, F. J., “Food colorants: anthocyanins,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 28(4). 273-314. 1989.
[10]  Brouillard, R., Mazza, G., Saad, Z., Albrecht-Gary, A.M., and Cheminat A., “The co-pigmentation reaction of anthocyanins: a microprobe for the structural study of aqueous solutions,” Journal of The American Chemical Society, 111(11). 2604-2610. March. 1989.
[11]  Sun, J., Cao, X.G., Bai, W.B., Liao, X.J., and Hu, X.S., “Comparative analyses of copigmentation of cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-sophoroside from redraspberry fruits,” Food Chemistry, 120(4). 1131-1137. Jun.2010.
[12]  Gómez-Míguez, M., González-Manzeno, S., Escribano-Bailón, M.T., Heredia, F.J., and Santos-Buelga, C., “Influence of different phenolic copigments on the color of malvidin 3-glucoside,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(15). 5422-5429. Jun. 2006.
[13]  George, F., Figuereido, P., Toki, K., Tatsuzawa, F., Saito, N., and Brouillard, R., “Influ-ence of trans–cis isomerisation of coumaric acid substituents on color variance and stabilization in anthocyanin,” Phytochemisty, 57(5). 791-795. 2001.
[14]  Stintzing, F. C., and Carle, R., “Functional properties of anthocyanin and betalains in plants, food and in human nutrition,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(1). 19-38. Jan.2004.
[15]  Pin-Der, D., and Gow-Chin, Y., “Antioxidative activity of three herbal water extracts,” Food Chemistry, 60(4). 639-645. Dec.1997
[16]  Rein, M., Copigmentation reactions and color stability of berry anthocyanins. Helsinki, Russia: University of Helsinki, PhD thesis. 2005.
[17]  Kopjar, M., and Piližota, V., “Copigmentation effect of phenolic compounds on red currant juice anthocyanins during storage,” Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technolog, 1(2). 16-20. Dec. 2009.
[18]  Wrolstad, R.E., Durst, R.W. and Lee, J., “Tracking color and pigment changes in anthocyanin products,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, 16 (9). 423-428 Sep 2005.
[19]  Fogliano, V., Verde, V., Randazzo, G., and Ritieni.A., “Method for measuring antioxidant activity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant capacity of wines,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47(3). 1035-1040. Feb.1999.
[20]  Farhadi, K., Esmaeilzadeh, F., Hatami, M., Forough, M. and Rahim Molaie, R., “Determination of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in skin, pulp, seed, cane and leaf of five native grape cultivars in West Azerbaijan province,” Iran Food Chemistry, 199. 847-855. May. 2016.
[21]  Sahin, F., Gulluce, M., Daferera, D., Sokmen, A., Sokmen, M., Polissiou, M., Agar, G. and Ozer,H., “Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgarespp. Vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, Food Control, 15(7). 549-557.Oct. 2004.
[22]  Kramer, A. and Twigg, B.A., Quality Control for The Food Industry 3th. AVI Publishing Co. Westport Conn. London. England. 1970.
[23]  Williams. C.T., Chocolate and Confectionery. Lindon, Hill Limited. 1956.
[24]  Gomez, K.A., and Gomez, A.A., Statistical Procedures for Agriculture Research. 2 nd ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, USA.1984.
[25]  Tsai, P.J., Mc-Intosh, J., Pearce, P., Camden, B. and Jordan, B.R., “Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract,” Food Research International, 35(4). 351-356. 2002.
[26]  Prenesti, E., Berto, S., Daniele, P. G & Toso, S., “Antioxidant power quantification of decoction and cold infusions of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers,” Food Chemistry, 100(2). 433-438.2007.
[27]  Juliani, H. R., Welch, C. R., Wu, Q., Diouf, B., Malainy, D., and Simon, J. E., “Chemistry and quality of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa) for developing the natural-product industry in Senegal,” Journal of Food Science, 74 (2). S113-S121.Mar. 2009.
[28]  Ajiboye, T. O., Salawu, N. A., Yakubu, M. T., Oladiji, A. T., Akanji, M. A., and Okogun, J. I., “Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract,” Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 34(2). 109-115. Apr. 2011.
[29]  El Sherif, F., Khattab, S., Ghoname, E., Salem, N., and Radwan, K., “Effect of gamma irradiation on enhancement of some economic traits and molecular changes in Hibiscus sabdariffa L,” Life Science Journal, 8(3). 220-229.2011.
[30]  Jung, E., Kim, Y., and Joo, N., “Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L),” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(15). 3769-3776. Dec. 2013.
[31]  Darwish, R. M., and Aburjai, T.A., “Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 28. 9-10. Feb. 2010.
[32]  Fullerton, M., Khatiwada, J., Johnson, J.U., Davis, S. and Williams, L.L., “Determination of antimicrobial activity of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from food, veterinary, and clinical samples,” Journal of Medicinal Food, 14(9). 950-956. Sep.2011.
[33]  Linares, I.B., Arroyoa, S.F.,. Roman, D.A., Suarezc, P.A., Diazc, R.D.V, Gonzales, I.A., Gutiérreza, A.F. Gomes-Leyvac, J.F. and Segura-Carretero, A., “Characterization of phenolic compounds, anthocyanidin, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of 25 varieties of Mexican Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa),” Industrial Crops and Products, 69. 385-394. Jul. 2015.
[34]  Duangmal, K., Saicheua, B., and Sueeprasan, S., Roselle anthocyanins as a natural food colorant and improvement of its color stability. Proceedings of the AIC Color and Paints, Interim Meeting of the International Color Association. IEEE Xplore, pp: 155-158. 2004.
[35]  Jasmina M., Nadežda A.P., and Jelisaveta M. B., “Aspectrophotometric study of the copigmentation of malvin with caffeic and ferulic acids,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(11), 5530-5536. Oct. 2000.
[36]  Mazza, G., and Miniati, E., Anthocyanin in Fruits, Vegetables and Grains. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.2000.
[37]  Cisse, M., Dornier, M., Sakho, M., Ndiaye, A., Reynes, M. and Sock, O., “Le bissap (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.): Composition et principales utilisations,Fruits, 64 (3). 179-193. 2009.
[38]  Christian,K.R. and Jackson, J.C., “ Changes in total phenolic and monomeric anthocyanin composition and antioxidant activity of three varieties of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) during maturity,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22 (7-8). 663-667. Nov- Dec.2009.
[39]  Weber. F; Boch, K. and Schieber, A., “Influence of copigmentation on the stability of spray dried anthocyanins from blackberry,” LWT - Food Science and Technology, 75. 72-77. Jan. 2017.
[40]  Mazza, G., and Brouillard, R., “The mechanism of co-pigmentation of anthocyanin in aqueous solutions,” Phytochemistry, 29(9). 1097-1102.1990.
[41]  Malien-Aubert, C., Dangles, O. and Amiot, M., “Colour stability of commercial anthocyanin-based extracts in relation to the phenolic composition. Protective effects by intra- and intermolecular copigmentation,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(1). 170-176. 2001.
[42]  Bakowska, A., Kucharska, A.Z., and Oszmianski, J., “The effects of heating, UV irradiation, and storage on stability of the anthocyanin-polyphenol copigment complex”, Food Chemistry, 81 (3). 349-355. Jun. 2003.
[43]  Wilska-Jeszka, J and Korzuchowska, A., “Anthocyanin and chlorogenic acid copigmentation. Influence on the color of strawberry and chokeberry juices,” Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung, 203(1). 38-42. Jan.1996.
[44]  Boulton, R., “The copigmentation of anthocyanin and its role in the color of red wine: a critical review,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 52. 67-87. Jan. 2001.