American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajfst Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
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American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(5), 149-159
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-5
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Formulation and Nutritional Evaluation of Instant Weaning Foods Processed from Maize (Zea mays), Pawpaw (Carica papaya), Red Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Mackerel Fish Meal (Scomber scombrus)

Bernard Tiencheu1, , Aduni Ufuan Achidi1, Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi2, Noel Tenyang3, Eurydice Flore Tiepma Ngongang1 and Hilaire Macaire Womeni4

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon

3Department of Biological science, Faculty of Science, University of Maroua, Maroua, Cameroon

4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

Pub. Date: August 31, 2016

Cite this paper:
Bernard Tiencheu, Aduni Ufuan Achidi, Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi, Noel Tenyang, Eurydice Flore Tiepma Ngongang and Hilaire Macaire Womeni. Formulation and Nutritional Evaluation of Instant Weaning Foods Processed from Maize (Zea mays), Pawpaw (Carica papaya), Red Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Mackerel Fish Meal (Scomber scombrus). American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(5):149-159. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-5

Abstract

The aims of this study were to evaluate the functional, nutritional and sensory qualities of five Instantaneous Complementary Foods formulated from blends of fermented maize, beans, fishmeal, pawpaw, and sugar. The different ingredients -fermented maize, beans, fishmeal, pawpaw and sugar- were incorporated in the proportions of 70-10-10-5-5 for diet A, 30-50-10-5-5 for diet B, 65-15-10-5-5 for diet C, 40-40-10-5-5 for diet D and 60-20-10-5-5 for diet E, respectively. A commercial weaning food, Phosphatine® served as control. Results of the proximate analysis showed that the formulated diets contained 363.82kcal, 333.97kcal, 362.01kcal, 341.96kcal and 358.06kcal of energy for diets A, B, C, D, and E respectively; 17.88%, 23.71%, 18.61%, 22.25%, and 19.34% of protein content for diets A, B, C, D and E respectively; 58.04%, 47.11%, 56.79%, 49.87%, 55.41% of carbohydrates for diets A B, C, D and E respectively; 4.46%, 3.41%, 4.49%, 3.72%, 4.34% of fats for diets A, B, C, D and E respectively. All the formulations contained the following elements range: Zinc (0.91-2.27mg); Sodium (31.43-492 mg), Manganese (0.27-7.70 mg), Phosphorus (85.35-756.21mg), Iron (0.00-31.7 mg), Magnesium (0.00-253 mg), Calcium (0.00-419.11mg) and Potassium (201.17-1484.01mg). Sensory analysis showed ratings within acceptable limits using a 9-point hedonic scale. The bulk density values were comparable (though slightly higher) to that for the control. The water absorption capacity ranged from 2.00 to 3.30 with diet E having the highest value while diet C had the lowest and the control had the highest WAC value with 4.65. The Oil absorption capacity ranged from 2.30 for diet E to 3.00 for diet C while the commercial weaning diet had an oil absorption capacity of 2.90. The Swelling Index ranged from 0.91 (diet A) to 1.25 (diet E) while that for the control diet was 1.00. The Foam capacity values ranged between 2.83 for diet D and 7.69 for diet E, while that for the control was 13.56. The dispersibility was within the range 94.0 (diet A) and 98.0 (diet E) while the control had a dispersibility value of 171.0. Animal feeding experiments revealed that the formulated diets gave the higher weight gain compared with the control diet as well as the higher PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio) values and higher body organ weights. The study concluded that the formulated diets could be used as alternatives to the weaning foods to improve the nutritional status of children and help to prevent protein-energy malnutrition.

Keywords:
malnutrition weaning food formulated diets proximate analysis complementary foods

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