American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajfst Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016, 4(5), 141-148
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-4
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Hybrid Solar Drying Method on the Functional and Sensory Properties of Tomato

J. B. Hussein1, M. A. Usman1 and K. B. Filli1, 2,

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, P. M. B. 2076 Yola, Nigeria

2SP Food and Bioscience Box 5401, 402 29 Gothenburg, Sweden

Pub. Date: August 19, 2016

Cite this paper:
J. B. Hussein, M. A. Usman and K. B. Filli. Effect of Hybrid Solar Drying Method on the Functional and Sensory Properties of Tomato. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016; 4(5):141-148. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-4-5-4

Abstract

A hybrid solar dryer, direct solar energy dryer and open sun drying under the climatic conditions of Yola, Nigeria was used to dry tomato slices. The effect of these drying methods on the functional and sensory quality of the dried tomatoes was examined. The functional properties of the dried tomatoes slices were significantly different (p<0.05). In open sun dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.56 – 0.62 g/ml, water absorption index (WAI) 436.33 – 475.67 gH2O/sample, water solubility index (WSI) 6.00 – 14.00, specific volume 1.61 – 1.78 ml/g and wettability 10.33 – 13.33 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato samples. For solar dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.52 – 0.57 g/ml, the WAI ranged from 412.00 – 454.00 gH2O/sample, the water solubility index (WSI) range was 12.33 – 16.67, specific volume range was 1.73 – 1.90 ml/g and wettability ranged from 5.85 – 10.63 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato samples. For the hybrid dried tomatoes, the bulk density ranged from 0.50 – 0.54 g/ml, the WAI values ranged from 386.00 – 436.00 gH2O/sample, the WSI 14.67 – 18.00, specific volume range was 1.84 – 1.99 ml/g and wettability 5.80 – 8.44 s for 4 – 8 mm thick tomato sample. The organoleptic properties showed that the tomatoes dried by hybrid drying method was superior in terms of acceptability test than those dried using direct solar energy and a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel tomato products. Conclusively, good quality shelf stable dried tomato slices could be produced using hybrid drying method.

Keywords:
tomato bulk density water absorption index organoleptic properties

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 2

References:

[1]  Abdulmalik I. O., Amonye M. C., Ambali A. O., Umeanuka P. O. and Mahdi M. (2014). Appropriate Technology for Tomato Powder Production. International Journal of Engineering Inventions Volume 3,: 29-34.
 
[2]  Abul-Fadl, M. M. and Ghanem, T. H. (2011). Effect of Refractance-Window (RW) Drying Method on Quality Criteria of Produced Tomato Powder as Compared to the Convection Drying Method, World Applied Science Journal 15(7): 953-965.
 
[3]  Alam, T., Tanweer, G. and Goyal, G.K. (2007). Stewart Postharvest Review, Packaging and storage of tomato puree and paste. Research article, 3(5): 1-8.
 
[4]  Amer, B. M. A., Hossain, M. A. and Gottschalk, K. (2010). Design and Performance Evaluation of a New Hybrid Solar Dryer for Banana, Energy Conversion and Management 51: 813-820.
 
[5]  Andritsos, N., Dalampakis, P. and Kolios, N. (2003). Use of Geothermal Energy for Tomato Drying. GHC Bulletin, 9-13.
 
[6]  Arab, L. and S. Steck (2000). “Lycopene and Cardiovascular Disease.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71: 1691S-1695S.
 
[7]  Arah I. K., Kumah E.K., Anku, E. K. and Amaglo, H. (2015). An Overview of Post-Harvest Losses in Tomato Production in Africa: Causes and Possible Prevention Strategies. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare www.iiste.org Vol.5, No.16, 78-88.
 
[8]  Babarinsa, F.A., Williams, J.O., and Ngoddy, P.N., (2006). Development of a Hybrid Dryer with Kerosene and Solar Heat Source. Nigeria Drying Symposium series, (2): 27-34.
 
[9]  Bassey, M. W. (1985). Design and Performance of Hybrid Crop Dryer using Solar-Energy and Sawdust. In: Proceedings of the ISES congress INTERSOL 85, Montreal, Canada, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1038-1042.
 
[10]  Basu, A. and V. Imrhan (2007). “Tomatoes versus Lycopene in Oxidative Stress and Carcinogenesis: Conclusions from Clinical Trials.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61(3): 295-303.
 
[11]  Blair R, Calota G, Crossman A, Drake F, O'Keefe K. Design of a solar powered fruit and vegetable dryer; 2007.
 
[12]  Boughali S, Benmoussa H, Bouchekima B, Mennouche D, Bouguettaia H, et al. (2009) Crop Drying by Indirect Active Hybrid-Solar-Electrical Dryer in the Eastern Algerian Septentrional Sahrta. Solar Energy 83: 2223-2232.
 
[13]  FAOSTAT (2014). Global Tomato Production in 2012. Rome, FAO.
 
[14]  Filli, K. B., Nkama, I., Jideani, V. A. and Abubakar, U. M. (2013). Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Evaluation of Proximate Composition and Functionality of Millet-Soybean Fura Extrudates, Wudpecker Journal of Food Technology 1(5): 074-092.
 
[15]  Forson FK, Nazha MAA, Akuffo FO, Rajakaruna H. Design of mixed-mode natural convection solar crop dryers: application of principles and rules of thumb. Renew Energy 2007; 32(14): 2306-19.
 
[16]  Freeman, B.B., & Reimers, K. (2010). Tomato Consumption and Health: Emerging Benefits. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 1559827610387488: 1-11.
 
[17]  Giovannucci, E. (1999). “Tomatoes, Tomato-Based Products, Lycopene, and Cancer: Review of the Epidemiologic Literature.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91(4): 317-331.
 
[18]  Grandillo, S., Zamir, D. & Tanksley, S.D. (1999) Genetic Improvement of Processing Tomatoes: A 20 Years Perspective. Euphytica 110: 85-97.
 
[19]  Goula AM, Adamopoulos KG (2005) Stability of lycopene during spray drying of tomato pulp. Lebens Wissen Technol., 38:479-487.
 
[20]  Hossain, M. A. and Gottschaslk, K. (2006). Determination of Optimum Conditions for Half Fruits Drying Kinetics of Tomato. Bornimer Agric. Berichte, 55:181-197.
 
[21]  Innes, E. (2014). How Eating Tomatoes Could Increase Male Fertility: Key Compound in the Fruit Could Boost Sperm Count by 70%. Australia Daily Mail. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article- 2620676/How-eating-tomatoes-increase-male-fertility-Key-compound-fruit-boost-sperm-count- 70.html#ixzz3JCag9Wmu. Accessed on 2/10/2014.
 
[22]  Isiaka, M. (2013). Quality Assessment of Solar Energy Dried Tomato Flakes, Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, (9):1-7.
 
[23]  Iwe, M. O. (2010). Some Sensory Methods and Data Analysis. In Handbook of Sensory Methods and Analysis. (Second Eds.). ISBN: 978-32124-8-6, Published in Rojoint Communication Services LTD, Enugu, Nigeria, pp. 80-85.
 
[24]  Jinapong N, Suphantharika M, and Jamnong P. (2008). Production of Instant Soymilk Powders by Ultrafiltration, Spray Drying and Fluidized Bed Agglomeration. J Food Eng. 84: 194-205.
 
[25]  Lin, F., Cao, X., Wang, H. and Lido, X. (2010). Changes in Tomato Powder Qualities during Storage, Powder Technology, 204: 159-166.
 
[26]  Lorenz, O. A. and Maynard, D. N. (1997). Knott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers. 3rd Edition, John Wiley and sons. New York. pp 23-38 and 341-342.
 
[27]  Nwosu, J. N., Ahaotu, I., Ayozie, C., Udeozor, L. O. and Ahaotu, N. N. (2011). The Proximate and Functional Properties of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) Seeds as Affected by Processing. Nigerian Food Journal 29(2): 39-48.
 
[28]  Onwuka, G. I. (2005). Food Analysis and Instrumentation, Theory and Practical. First Published in Nigeria. Pp58-75.
 
[29]  Owusu John, Haile Ma, Zhenbin Wang and Agnes Amissah (2012). Effect of Drying Methods on Physicochemical Properties of Pre-treated Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) Slices. Croatian Journal of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition 7 (1-2): 106-111.
 
[30]  Peleg M. and Bagley, E.B. (1983). Physical Properties of Foods. Westport: CN: AVI Publishers Co.
 
[31]  Pohar, K. S., Gong, M.C., Bahnson, R., Miller, E.C., Clinton, S K. (2003). “Tomatoes, Lycopene and Prostate Cancer: A Clinician's Guide for Counseling Those at Risk for Prostate Cancer.” World Journal of Urology 21(1): 9-14.
 
[32]  Prasad, J. and Vijay, V. K. (2005). Experimental Studies on Drying of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa L. and Tinospora cordifolia in Solar-Biomass Hybrid Dryer. Renew Energy 30: 2097-109.
 
[33]  Qing–Bo, D., Ainsworth, P., Tuker, G. and Marson, H. (2005). The Effect of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Rice – Based Expanded Snacks, Journal Food Engineering 66: 284-289.
 
[34]  Reyes, A., Mahn, A., Huenulaf, P. and González, T. (2014) Tomato Dehydration in a Hybrid-Solar Dryer. Journal Chemical Engineering Process Technology 5 (4): 1-8.
 
[35]  Ringeisen B., Barrett D. M. and Stroeve P. (2000). Concentrated solar drying of tomatoes. Energy for Sustainable Development 19 (2014) 47-55
 
[36]  Singh V., Singh S.K. and Maurya S. (2010). Microwave induced poly (acrylic acid) modification of cassia javanica seed gum for efficient Hg (II) removal from solution. Chem Eng J 2000, 160:129-137.
 
[37]  Singhanat Phoungchandang and Anong Sertwasana (2010). Spray-Drying of Ginger Juice and Physicochemical Properties of Ginger Powders Science Asia 36: 40-45.
 
[38]  Splittstoesser, W. E. (1990). Vegetable Growing Handbook: Organic and Traditional. Methods. 3rd Edition, Vannostrand Reinbold, New York. pp 167-171.
 
[39]  Srividya, N., Pushkala Ramachandran and Poojitha, M. N. (2014). Influence of Maltodextrin and Nutritive Anti-Caking Agents on Quality Characteristics and Storage Stability of Papaya Powder, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 5(2): 1108-1123.
 
[40]  Tapiero H, Townsend MD, Tew WD (2004) The role of carotenoids in the prevention of human pathologies. Biomed Pharmacother 58:100-110.
 
[41]  Walton, D. E. (2000). The Morphology of Spray-Dried Particles. A Qualitative View. Drying Technology, 18: 1943-1986.