American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajfst Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(3), 82-88
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-5
Open AccessArticle

Effects of Pre-treatments and Drying Methods on Chemical Composition, Microbial and Sensory Quality of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour and Porridge

Fana Haile1, Shimelis Admassu2, and Abrehet Fisseha3

1Arbamich University

2Food, Beverage and Pharmaceutical Industry Development Institute, Ministry of Industry, Ethiopia

3Hawassa University, School of Nutrition, Food Science and Technology, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: July 09, 2015

Cite this paper:
Fana Haile, Shimelis Admassu and Abrehet Fisseha. Effects of Pre-treatments and Drying Methods on Chemical Composition, Microbial and Sensory Quality of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour and Porridge. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(3):82-88. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-5

Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on the chemical composition (proximate composition, β-carotene content and phytochemicals), functional properties, microbial and sensory of orange-fleshed sweet potato flour and porridge. Physical (blanching) and chemical (1% salt, 0.5% citric acid solution soaked for 20 min) of the sliced OFSP followed by drying (sun, solar and fluidized bed dried) with complete randomized design for chemical composition, functional properties, and microbial load analysis and randomized complete block design was used for sensory analysis. The moisture (4 - 8%), protein (4 - 8%), fat (0.9 - 2.5), ash (4 - 8%), fiber (3.5 - 7%), total carbohydrates (80 - 84%) measured as a function of treatment and drying. The energy contribution of OFSP was determined by difference of the proximate excluding the fiber (352.9-365.6kcal/100g). The salt treated and FB dried had significantly lowest moisture content and highest ash content, citric acid treated and FB dried had significantly highest protein content and gross energy, control and FB dried had significantly highest fiber content, control and sun dried had significantly highest fat content and blanched and FB dried had significantly highest total carbohydrates. The β-carotene (82 -127μg/g), tannin (74 -108mg/100g) and phytate content (51 - 98mg/100g) was measured. Blanched and FB dried was observed better in retention of β-carotene and reduction of phytochemicals (tannin and phytate). The salt treated and FB dried was measured increment with WAC, viscosity and lowest LGC, blanched and FB had highest OAC and high bulk density in the control. The microbial analysis showed OFSP porridge within microbiological acceptable limit. The sensory acceptability showed OFSP was accepted in all sensory attributes. In conclusion, the blanching and FB drying techniques were the best approach in retaining the nutrients.

Keywords:
β-carotene chemical composition drying method orange-fleshed sweet potato pre-treatment microbial quality sensory acceptability

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Adebayo-Oyetoro A., Olatidoye O., Ogundipe O., Balogun I. and Apara T. 2012. Effect of Local cassava fermentation methods on functional pasting and sensory properties of Lafun. Continental Journal of Agricultural Sciences; 6(2): 1-8.
 
[2]  Akubor, I. 2013. Effect of ascorbic acid and citric acid treatments on the functional and sensory properties of yam flour. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research; 1 (4), pp. 103-108.
 
[3]  Akubor, I. and John, I. 2012. Quality evaluation and cake making potential of sun and oven dried carrot fruit. International Journal of Biosciences; 2, No. 10(2), p. 19-27.
 
[4]  Anderson, L. and Gugerty, K. 2013. Sweet potato Value Chain: Ethiopia. Evans School Policy Analysis and Research. University of Washington. EPAR Brife No. 219. 11pp.
 
[5]  AOAC. 2000. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed. Arlington, VA., USA.
 
[6]  AOAC. 2000. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis, 16thEdn. Washington, DC.
 
[7]  Aprianita A, Purwandari U, Watson B, Vasiljevic T. 2009. Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches from selected commercial tubers available in Australia. International Food Research Journal; 16: 507-520.
 
[8]  Aremu, O. Olonisakin, A. Atolaye, O. and Ogbu, F. 2007. Some Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Prosopis Africana.Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research; 42(3): 269-280.
 
[9]  Babajide, J., Obadina, O., Oyewole, B. and Ugbaka, N. 2006. Microbial quality of dry yam ‘‘gbodo’’ parboiled with ⁄ without adjuncts. African Journal of Biotechnology; 5: 278-281.
 
[10]  Bechoff, A. 2010. Investigating carotenoid loss after drying and storage of orange-fleshed sweetpotato. PhD thesis. Natural Resources Institute. University of Greenwich. 260pp.
 
[11]  Bentil, B. 2011. Assessment of three different drying technologies (sun, solar and bin) used for the production of cassava (Manihotesculenta Crants) Chips in Ghana. MSc. Thesis, School of research and graduate studies, kwamenkrumah University.
 
[12]  Doymaz, I. 2007. Air-drying characteristics of tomatoes. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(4): 1291-1297.
 
[13]  Emmanuel, N. 2012. Application of Windhexe Dehydration Technology for producing ß-carotene Rich Flours From Sweet potatoes. MSc. Thesis, North Carolina State University .Food Science. Raleigh, North Carolina; 102 pp.
 
[14]  Eric, D. 2013. Effect of drying methods on nutrient quality of Basil (Ocimumviride) leaves cultivated in Ghana.International Food Research Journal 20(4): 1569-1573.
 
[15]  Eric, K. 2012. The effect of drying methods (catalytic flameless infrared - CFIR, oven and solar drying) on the quality of sweet potato flour.MSc.Thesis, College of science, department of biochemistry and biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi.
 
[16]  Eze, J. and Akubor, I. 2012. Effect of Drying Methods and Storage on the Physicochemical Properties of Okra.Journal Food Process and Technology; 3:177.
 
[17]  International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). 1996. Microorganisms in Foods: Microbiological Specifications of Pathogens.
 
[18]  Idowu, O., Olaoye, O., Sogotemi, C., Ajayi, B. 2013. Quality assessment of flours and amala produced from three varieties of sweet potato ipomeabatatas. International journal of food and nutritional sciences, 2(4): 2320-7876.
 
[19]  Kikafunda, J., Abenakyo, L., Lukwago, F. 2006. Nutritional and sensory properties of high energy/nutrient dense composite flour porridges from germinated maize and roasted beans for child-weaning in developing countries: a case for Uganda. Ecol. Food Nutr., 45, 279-294.
 
[20]  Latta and Eskin. 1980. Determination of Phytate. Journal of Cereal chemistry.
 
[21]  Low, J., Arimond, M., Osman, N., Cunguara, B., Zano, P. and Tschirley, T. 2007. A Food based approach introducing Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes increased vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentrations in young children in rural Mozambique. Journal of Nutrition; 137: 1320-1327.
 
[22]  Luis, G., Rubio, C., Gutiérrez, A., González-Weller, D., Revert, C., Hardisson, A. 2013. Evaluation of metals in several varieties of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.): comparative study. 186(1):433-440.
 
[23]  Malomo, O., Jimoh, O., Adekoyeni, O., Soyebi, E, Alamu, A . 2013. Effect of blanching and unblanching on rheological properties of sweet-potato bread. College of Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota Ogun State, Nigeria. Academic Research International; Vol. 4 No. 3.
 
[24]  Maxson and Rooney (1972). Condensed Tannin of Burns. Journal of Cereal chemistry.
 
[25]  Mosha, T, Gaga, H, Pace, R, Laswai, H, Mtebe, K. 1995. Effect of blanching on the content of antinutritional factors in selected vegetables. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. (Formerly QualitasPlanturum), 47(4): 361-367.
 
[26]  Muyanja, C., Kyambadde, D. and Namugumya, B. 2012. Effect of Pretreatments and Drying Methods on Chemical Composition and Sensory Evaluation of Oyster Mushroom (PluerotusOestreatus) Powder and Soup. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation; 38, Issue 1, pages 457-465.
 
[27]  Ngozi, A., Aminat, A., Adediran, A. and Ebunoluwa, O. 2013. The Effect Of Pretreatment Of Plantain (Musa Parasidiaca) Flour On The Pasting And Sensory Characteristics Of Biscuit. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Science; vol. 2 No.1.
 
[28]  Odongo, B., Mwanga, R., Owori, C., Niringiye, C., Opio, F., Ewell, P., Berga, L, Agwaro, G., Sunjogi, L., Abidin, E., Kikafunda., J. and Mayanja, R. 2002. Development and promotion of orange fleshed sweet potato to reduce vitamin A deficiency in Uganda. Kampala, Uganda, 7pp.
 
[29]  Olaoye, O., Onilude, A. and Idowu, O. 2006. Quality characteristics of bread produced from composite flours of wheat, plantain and soybeans. African Journal of Biotechnology; 5 (11), pp. 1102-1106.
 
[30]  Olapade, A. and Ogunade, O. 2014 Production and evaluation of flours and crunchy snacks from sweet potato (Ipomeabatatas) and maize flours. International Food Research Journal; 21(1): 203-208.
 
[31]  Owori, C., Lemaga, R., Mwanga, A., Namutebi and Kapinga, R. 2007. Sweet potato recipe book: sweet potato processed products from Eastern and Central Africa. African Crop Science Society; Kampala, Uganda. 93pp.
 
[32]  Pareek, S. and Kaushik, A. 2012. Effect of drying methods on quality of Indian gooseberry (EmblicaofficinalisGaertn.) poweder during storage. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research; Vol.71. pp. 727-732.
 
[33]  Pepe, O., Blaiotta, G., Moschetti, G., Greco, T., and Villani, F. 2003.Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology; 69:2321–2329.
 
[34]  Prajapati, K., Prabhat, K., Nema, S., Rathore. 2011. Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried aonla (EmblicaofficinalisGaertn) shreds. Journal of Food Science and Technology; 48(1):45–52.
 
[35]  Prakash, S., Jha, S. and Datta, N. 2004. Performance evaluation of blanched carrots dried by three different driers. Journal of Food Engineering; 62, 305-313.
 
[36]  Rodriguez- Amaya, D., Kimura, M., Godoy, H. and Arima, H. 1988. Assessment of provitamin A determination by open column chromatography/visible absorption spectrophotometry. Journal of Chromatography Science; 26:624-629.
 
[37]  SAS Institute. 2001. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) user’s guide, Release 8.1 1999- 2000. North Carolina, U.S.A.
 
[38]  Seidu, J., Bobobee, E., Kwenin, W., Tevor, W., Mahama, A. and Agbeven, J. 2012. Drying of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) (chipped and grated) for quality flour using locally constructed solar dryers. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science; vol. 7, no. 6.
 
[39]  Shimelis, Admassu, E., Meaza, M., and Rakshit, S.K. 2006. Physico-chemical properties, pasting behavior and functional characteristics of flour and starches from improved Beans in East Africa. GIGR Journal; 8(1): 1-18.
 
[40]  Surkan S, Albani O, Ramallo L. 2009. Influence of storage conditions on sensory shelf-life of yerba mate. Journal of Food Quality. 32: 58-72.
 
[41]  Teye, E. 2010. Developing appropriate storage technology for sweet potatoes in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana. Thesis, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.
 
[42]  Truong, V. and Avula, R. 2010. Sweet potato purees and powders for functional food ingredients. In R. C. Ray, Post-Harvest Aspects In Food. USA: Nova Science Publishers. 117-161pp.
 
[43]  Tumwegamire, S., Kapinga, R., Mwanga, R., Niringiye, C., Lemaga, B. and Nsumba, J. 2007. Acceptability studies of orange –fleshed sweet potato verities in Uganda. In: proceeding of the 13th ISTRC Symposium, pp.807-813, Kampala, Uganda.
 
[44]  Ünlüsayin, M., Erdilal, B., Gümüş, E. and Gülyavuz, H. 2010. The effects of different salting methods on extract loss from rainbow trout. Pakistan Vet.Journal ; 30(3), 131-134.
 
[45]  USAID. 2011. Maternal, Infant, and Young Child Nutrition in Malawi,United States Agency for International Development (USAID),Community Nutrition Workers.
 
[46]  Van Hal, M. 2000. Quality of sweet potato flour during processing and storage. Food Review International; 16: 1-37.
 
[47]  Wijinker, J., Koop, G. and Lipman, L. 2006. Antimicrobial properties of salt (NaCl) used for the preservation of natural casings. Journal ofFood Microbiology; 23: 657-662.
 
[48]  Woolfe, J. 1992. Sweet potato: an untapped food resource, Cambridge University. Press and the International Potato Center (CIP). Cambridge, UK.
 
[49]  Yakubu, N., Amuzat, A. and Hamza, R. 2012. Effect of processing methods on the nutritional contents of bitter leaf (Vernoniaamygdalina).American journal of food and nutrition; 2(1): 26-30.
 
[50]  Yusuf, A., Ayedun, H., Sanni, L. 2008. Chemical composition and functional properties of raw and roasted Nigerian benniseed (Sesamumindicum) and Bambara groundnut ((Vigna subterranean).Food Chemistry; 111: 277-282.
 
[51]  Zakpaa, H, Al-Hassan, A, Adubofour, J. 2010. An investigation into the feasibility of production and characterization of starch from ‘apantu’ plantain (giant horn) grown in Ghana. African Journal of Food Science; 4(9): 571-577.
 
[52]  Zhang, M., Tang, I., Mujumdar, A. and Wang, S. 2006. Trends in microwave-related drying of fruits and vegetables. Trends in Food Science & Technology; (17):524 - 534.