American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajfst Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014, 2(5), 162-174
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-5
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Effect of Packaging Materials and Storage Temperatures on Quality Degradation of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Olives Grown in Palestine

Jehad Abbadi1, , Ibrahim Afaneh2, Ziad Ayyad2, Fuad Al-Rimawi3, Wadie Sultan3 and Khalid Kanaan3

1Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dies, Jerusalem, Palestine

2Department of Food Technology, College of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dies, Jerusalem, Palestine

3Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, College of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, Abu Dies, Jerusalem, Palestine

Pub. Date: October 30, 2014

Cite this paper:
Jehad Abbadi, Ibrahim Afaneh, Ziad Ayyad, Fuad Al-Rimawi, Wadie Sultan and Khalid Kanaan. Evaluation of the Effect of Packaging Materials and Storage Temperatures on Quality Degradation of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Olives Grown in Palestine. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 2(5):162-174. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-2-5-5

Abstract

The quality of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is intimately affected by packaging material and storage temperature. In this study, the influence of packaging materials and elevated temperature on EVOO quality was investigated during six months. At ambient temperatures, oil maintained EVOO when stored in glass, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high density polyethylene (HDPE), cans and Pottery in terms of chemical tests (acidity, peroxide value, K232, and K270). Loss of phenols was the highest in pottery-stored oil and the lowest was found in glass-stored oil. Only PET-stored oil maintained the EVOO grade in terms of sensory evaluation when stored at room temperature. At elevated temperature, oil stored in all packaging materials lost extra virgin quality in terms of chemical tests. The loss of phenols was the largest in HDPE and smallest in cans-stored oil. Sensory evaluation, maintained glass-stored oil and PET-stored oil as EVOO. This study has reaffirmed that at both storage temperatures, the best container in maintaining the EVOO quality was glass and the worst was pottery. Grading of stored olive oil under investigation using sensory evaluation solely was not sufficient. Also it was clear that the absorption coefficient K270 was the most sensitive determinant chemical test that determines the quality of stored olive oil and could be used as a rapid indicator test.

Keywords:
Olea europaea L. olive oil oil oxidation stability indicators storage conditions packaging materials

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  FAO statistics [Online]. http://faostat.fao.org, accessed on 20th June 2014.
 
[2]  International Olive Oil Council. Sensory analysis of olive oil –Method- Organoleptic assessment of virgin olive oil., COI/T.20/Doc. No. 15/2nd Review. Madrid, Spain, 2007.
 
[3]  Lairon, D. Intervention studies on Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. Mol. Nutr. Food Res.., 51, 1209-1214, 2007.
 
[4]  Hill, M. J.; Giacosa, A. The Mediterranean diet, Eur. J. Cancer Prev., 1, 339-340, 1991.
 
[5]  Vacca, V.; Caro, A.; Poiana, M. Effect of storage period and exposure conditions on the quality of bosana extra-virgin olive oil. J. Food Qual., 29, 139-150, 2006.
 
[6]  International Olive Oil Council (IOOC), Trade standard applying to olive oil and olive pomace oil, RES. COI/T.15/NC no. 3/Revision 1, 2003.
 
[7]  Gutiérrez, F.; Fernández, J. L. Determinant parameters and components in the storage of virgin olive oil, prediction of storage time beyond which the oil is no longer of “extra” quality. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 571-577, 2002.
 
[8]  Velasco, J.; Dobarganes, C. Oxidative stability of virgin olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 104, 661-676, 2002.
 
[9]  Gomez-Alonso, S.; Mancebo-Campos, V.; Salvador, M. D.; Fregapane, G. Evolution of major and minor components and oxidation indices of virgin olive oil during 21 months storage at room temperature. Food Chem., 100, 36-42, 2007.
 
[10]  Campos, V. M.; Salvador, M. D.; Fregapane, G. Comparative Study of Virgin Olive Oil Behavior under Rancimat Accelerated Oxidation Conditions and Long-TermRoom Temperature Storage. J. of Agric. Food Chem., 55, 8231-8236, 2007.
 
[11]  Cosio, M. S.; Ballabio, D.; Benedetti, S.; Gigliotti, C. Geographical origin and authentication of extra virgin olive oils by an electronic nose in combination with artificial neural networks. Anal. Chim. Acta., 567:202-210, 2006.
 
[12]  Bongartz, A.; Oberg, D.G. Sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) extended to include the quality factor “harmony”. J. Agric. Sci. Tech. A., 1, 422-435, 2011.
 
[13]  Dabbou, S; Gharbi, I; Dabbou, S.; Brahmi, F.; Nakbi, A.; Hammami, M. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10, 16937-16947, 2011.
 
[14]  Caponio, F.; Bilancia, M. T.; Pasqualone, A.; Sikorska, E.; Gomes, T. Influence of the exposure to light on extra virgin olive oil quality during storage. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 221, 92-98, 2005.
 
[15]  Afaneh, I. A.; Abbadi, J.; Ayyad, Z.; Sultan, W.; Kanan, K. Evaluation of Selected Quality Degradation Indices for Palestinian Extra Virgin Olive Oil Bottled in Different Packaging Materials upon Storage under Different Lighting Conditions. J. Food Sci. and Eng., 3, 267-283, 2013.
 
[16]  Kalua, C. M.; Allen, M. S.; Bedgood, D. R.; Bishop, A.G.; Prenzler, P.D.; Robards, K. Olive oil volatile compounds, flavor development and quality: A critical review. Food Chem., 100, 273-286, 2007.
 
[17]  Kanavouras, A.; Munoz, P. H.; Coutelieris, F. A. Packaging of Olive Oil: Quality Issues and Shelf Life Predictions. Food Rev. Int., 22, 381-404, 2006.
 
[18]  Kalua, C. M.; Bedgood, D. R.; Bishop A. G.; Prenzler P. D. Discrimination of storage conditions and freshness in Virgin Olive Oil. J. Agric Food Chem., 54, 7144-7151, 2006.
 
[19]  Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC, 17th ed. AOAC, Arlington, Virginia USA, 2000.
 
[20]  International Olive Oil Council (IOOC). Method of analysis: spectrophotometric investigation in the ultraviolet COI/T20/Doc. no. 19/Rev.1. 2001.
 
[21]  Georgios, K.; Georgios, B.; Kiriaki, B. Stability and radical-scavenging activity of heated olive oil and other vegetable oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech., 108, 329-335, 2006.
 
[22]  Gutierrez, F.; Fernandez, J. L. Determinant parameters and components in the storage of virgin olive oil. Prediction of storage time beyond which the oil is no longer of “Extra” Quality". J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 571-577, 2002.
 
[23]  Muik, B.; Lendl, B.; Molina-Diaz, A.; Ayora-Canada, M. J. Direct monitoring of lipid oxidation inedible oils by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Chem. Phys. Lipids., 134, 173-182, 2005.
 
[24]  Garcia-Gonzalez, D. L.; Aparicio-Ruiz, R.; Aparicio, R. Virgin olive oil-chemical implications on quality and health. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 110, 1-6, 2003.
 
[25]  Linares J.; Palma, M. G.; Iñigo M. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing. Grasas Aceites., 57, 68-85, 2006.
 
[26]  European Union Commission. Regulation EEC 2568/91 on the characteristics of olive oil and olive-residue oil and on the relevant methods of analysis. Official J. of Eur. Commun., 248, 1991.
 
[27]  Kiritsakis, A. K. Flavor components of olive oil-A review. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75, 673-681, 1998.
 
[28]  Fregapane, G. D.; Lavelli, V. R.; Salvador, M. Effect of filtration on virgin olive oil stability during storage. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 108: 134-142, 2006.
 
[29]  Romani G. D. ; Labicci C. R. ; Cantini C. Evolution of minor polar compounds and antioxidant capacity during storage of bottled extra virgin olive oil. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 1315-1320, 2007.
 
[30]  Giovacchino L. D.; Mucciarella M. R.; Costantini N. Use of Nitrogen to Improve Stability of Virgin Olive Oil During Storage. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 79, 339-344, 2002.
 
[31]  Gallardo-Guerrero, L.; Gandul-rojas, B.; Gandul-Rojas, B.; Mínguez-mosquera, M. I. Effect of Storage on the Original Pigment Profile of Spanish Virgin Olive Oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 82, 33-39, 2005.
 
[32]  Pristouri, G.; Badeka, A.; Kontominas, M. G. Effect of packaging material headspace, oxygen and light transmission, temperature and storage time on quality characteristics of extra virgin olive oil, Food Control., 21, 412-418, 2010.
 
[33]  Rababah, T. M.; Feng, H.; Yang, W.; Eriefejl, K.; Al-Omoush, M. Effects of type of packaging material on physicochemical and sensory properties of olive oil. Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng., 66-72, 2011.
 
[34]  Ben Tekaya, I.; Ben Tekaya Ben Amor, I.; Belgaied, S.; El Atrache, A.; Hassouna M. Étude du conditionnement de l’huile d’olive dans les emballages en plastique. Science des Aliments., 27, 214-233, 2007.
 
[35]  Nouros, P. G.; Georgiou, C. A.; Polissiou, M. G. Direct parallel flow injection multichannel spectrophotometric determination of olive oil peroxide value. Anal. Chim. Acta., 389, 239-245, 1999.
 
[36]  Akoh, C. C.; Min, D. B. Lipid Oxidation of Edible Oils. Food Lipids Chem. Nutr. Biotechnol., 54, 283–296, 2002.
 
[37]  Sacchi, R.; Savarese, M.; Del Regno, A. Shelf Life of Vegetable Oils Bottled in Different Scavenging Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) Containers. Pack. Technol. Sci., 21, 269-277, 2008.
 
[38]  Anniva, C.; Grigoriadou, D.; Psomiadou, E.; Tsimidou, M. Z. Pheophytin degradation products as useful indices in the quality control of virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soci., 83, 371-375, 2006.
 
[39]  Sharma, P.C.; Sharma, R. Storage behavior of olive (Olea europaea L.) oil in different packages. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 65, 244-247, 2006.
 
[40]  Kiritsakis, A.; Kanavouras, A.; Kiritsakis, K. Chemical analysis, quality control and packaging issues of olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 104, 628-638, 2002.
 
[41]  Kiritsakis, A. K.; Dugan, L. R. Effect of selected storage conditions and packaging materials on olive oil quality. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 61: 1868-1870, 1984.
 
[42]  Allien, J. C. Measurement of rancidity. In Rancidity in Foods; Allien, J. C.; Hamilton, R. J. Eds.; Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York, 23-51, 1989.
 
[43]  Pagliarini, E.; Zanoni, B.; Giovanelli, G. Predictive study on Tuscan extra virgin olive oil stability under several commercial conditions. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48, 1345-1351, 2000.
 
[44]  Rodney J. M.; Graham, K. The Effect of Storage in Collapsible containers on Olive Oil Quality, Australian Government, rural industries research and development cooperation., RIRDC Publication No. 12/008, 2012.
 
[45]  Bilancia, M.T., Caponio, F., Sikorskab, E., Pasqualonea, A. and Summo, C. Correlation of triacylglycerol oligopolymers and oxidised triacylglycerols to quality parameters in extra virgin olive oil during storage. Food Res. Int., 40, 855-861, 2007.
 
[46]  Deiana, M.; Rosa, A.; Cao, C. F.; Pirisi, F. M.; Bandino, G.; Dessi, M. A. Novel approach to study oxidative stability of extra virgin olive oils: importance of α- tocopherol concentration. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 4342-4346, 2002.
 
[47]  Morello, J. R.; Motilva, M. J.; Tovar, M. J.; Romero, M. P. Changes in commercial virgin olive oil (cv Arbequina) during storage, with special emphasis on the phenolic fraction. Food chem., 85, pp. 357-364, 2003.
 
[48]  Psomiadou, E.; Tsimidou, M.; Simultaneous HPLC determination of tocopherols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls for monitoring their effect on virgin olive oil oxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem., 46, 5132-5138, 1998.
 
[49]  Morello, J. R.; Motilva, M. J.; Tovar, M. J.; Romero, M. P. Changes in commercial virgin olive oil (cv. Arbequina) during storage, with special emphasis on the phenolic fraction. Food Chem., 85, 357-364, 2004.
 
[50]  Angerosa, F., Mostallino, R.; Basti, C.; Vito. R. Virgin olive oil odour notes: their relationships with volatile compounds from the lipoxygenase pathway and secoiridoid compounds. Food Chem., 68, 283-287, 2000.
 
[51]  Angerosa, F., Servili, M.; Selvaggini, R.; Taticchi, A.; Esposto, S.; Montedoro, G. Volatile compounds in virgin olive oil: occurrence and their relationship with the quality. J. Chromatogr. A, 1054,17-31, 2004.
 
[52]  Salas, J. J.; Sanchez, C.; Garcia-Gonzalez, D. L.; Aparicio, R. Impact of the suppression of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase on the quality of the green odor in green leaves. J. Agricu. Food Chem., 53:1648-1655, 2005.
 
[53]  Morales, M.T.; Aparicio, R. Effect of extraction conditions on sensory quality of virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 76: 295-300, 1999.
 
[54]  Cimato, A., Dello Monacoa, D., Distante, C., Epifani, M., Siciliano, P., Taurino, A.M., Zuppa, M., Sani, A. Analysis of single-cultivar extra virgin olive oils by means of an electronic nose and HS-SPME/GC/MS methods. Sensor Actuator B, 114, 674-680, 2006.
 
[55]  Sinesio, F.; Moneta, E.; Esti, M. The dynamic sensory evaluation of bitterness and pungency in virgin olive oil. Food Qual. Prefer., 16, pp. 557-564, 2005.