American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020, 8(3), 99-105
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-8-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Influence of Pasteurization on the Quality of Pineapple, Watermelon and Banana Pulps-based Smoothie Flavoured with Coconut Milk

Uzodinma E.O.1, , Mbaeyi-Nwaoha I.E1 and Onwurafor E.U.1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: May 15, 2020

Cite this paper:
Uzodinma E.O., Mbaeyi-Nwaoha I.E and Onwurafor E.U.. Influence of Pasteurization on the Quality of Pineapple, Watermelon and Banana Pulps-based Smoothie Flavoured with Coconut Milk. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020; 8(3):99-105. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-8-3-3


Effect of pasteurization on the quality of pineapple, watermelon and banana pulps-based smoothie flavoured with coconut milk was reported. The fruits were sorted, washed thoroughly with clean salt water, peeled, sliced and diced into small cubes, while coconut heads were processed into milk. Smoothies from blends of pineapple (P), watermelon (W) and banana (B) pulps were formulated and coconut milk (C) was added as a flavourant. The blends: PWBC1 (50:40:10:10), PWBC2 (50:10:40:10) and PWBC3 (50:30:20:10), were of different ratios with each pasteurized to obtain three more samples (A1, A2 and A3). The three non-pasteurized products served as control. Chemical, microbial and sensory analyses were carried out on all smoothie samples. Significant (p>0.05) differences did not exist in proximate composition between treatments; but within samples, moisture (65.15-73.68%), crude protein (0.45-1.08%), fat (3.04-3.34%), fibre (6.82-10.14%), ash (1.50-2.80%) and carbohydrate (14.21-18.79%) contents. All the samples had significantly (p<0.05) high proportion of vitamin C (220.49-844.71 mg 100ml-1), pro-vitamin A (63.64-250.72 mg 100ml-1), potassium (98.73-200.59 mg 100ml-1) and calcium (17.79-19.10 mg 100ml-1) contents. Pasteurization treatment gave smoothies of comparable nutritional and organoleptic properties with the conventional non-pasteurized smoothies. The pasteurized samples (A2 and A3) had higher scores in overall acceptability for the sensory attributes. With pasteurization, safe smoothie beverages prepared and consumed regularly can assist in the enhancement and sustainability of household food and nutrition security.

beverage coconut milk fruit pulps pasteurization smoothies

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Zavasta, T. (2009). Smoothie moves: Enjoy the benefit of green smoothies and puddings. Raw Food and Hot Yoga, pp. 39. In: ; ISBN 0-9742434-9-3. Accessed on 07-02-2019.
[2]  Anon. (2015). How to Make a Smoothie? Accessed on December 5th, 2015.
[3]  Vickie, A. V. and Christian, E. W. (2008). Essentials of Food Science (3rdeds.). Springer, United States of America, pp. 265-300.
[4]  Bakhru, H. K. (2000). Foods that heal. Orientation Paper Backs, New Delhi, India. pp. 33-35.
[5]  Jo, L. (2014). The health benefits of coconut milk. http://www.the health benefits of coconut.
[6]  Walker, A. F., Bundy, R. and Hicks, S. M. (2002). Bromelain reduces mild acute knee pain and improves well-being in a dose-dependent fashion in an open study of otherwise healthy. Phytomedicine. 9(8): 681-687.
[7]  Charoensiri, R., Kongkachiuchai, R., Suknicom, S. and Sungpuang, P. (2009). Beta-carotene, lycopene alpha-tocopherol contents of selected Thai fruits. Food Chemistry, 113:202-207.
[8]  Edwards, A. J., Vinyard, B. T. and Wiley, E. R. (2003). Consumption of watermelon juice increases plasma concentrations of lycopene and beta-carotene in humans. Journal of Nutrition, 133 (4): 1043-1050.
[9]  Megan, W. (2015). Bananas: Health benefits, risks and nutritional facts. Medical News Today, 4(3): 1-8.
[10]  Bower, J. A. (2013). Statistical Methods for Food Science: Introductory Procedures for the Food Practitioner, 2nd edition. Wiley Blackwell, United Kingdom. pp. 165-170.
[11]  Belewu, M. A. and Belewu, K. Y. (2007). Comparative physicochemical evaluation of tiger nut, soybean and coconut milk sources. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9(5): 785-787.
[12]  AOAC (2010). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (18th eds.), Washington D. C., United States of America.
[13]  Arroyave, G., Chichester, C. O., Hermando, F., Glover, J., Mejia, L. A., Olson, J. A., Simpson, K. L. and Underwood, B. A. (1982). Biochemical methodology for assessment of vitamin A status. The Nutrition Foundation, Washington D. C., United States of America, 24-3.
[14]  Pearson, D. A. (1976). Chemical Analysis of Foods (7th edition). Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, pp. 355-356.
[15]  Prescott, L. M., Harley, J. P. and Klein, O. A. (2005). Microbiology (6thedition), McGraw Hill Publishers, NewYork,pp. 95-105.
[16]  Harrigan, W. C. and McCance, M. E. (1976). Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology, Academic Press, New York, pp. 59-63.
[17]  Iwe, M. O. (2002). Handbook of Sensory Methods and Analysis, Rejoin Communications Services Limited, Nigeria. pp. 11-75.
[18]  Ihekoronye, I. A. and Ngoddy, P. O. (1985). Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics, Macmillan Publishers Limited, pp. 165-192.
[19]  Ekpete, O. A., Onisogen, S. E. and Ebirien, P. F. (2013). Proximate and mineral composition of some Nigerian fruits. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 3(4): 1447-1454.
[20]  Fellows, P.J. (2000). Food Processing Technology: Principle and practice (2nd Edition). Wood head Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC: USA. Pp. 248-249.
[21]  Offia-Olua, B. I. and Ekwunife, O. A. (2015). Production and evaluation of the physicochemical and sensory qualities of mixed fruit leather and cakes produced from apple (Musa pumila), banana (Musa sapientum) and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Nigerian Food Journal, 33 (15): 22-28.
[22]  Amarasiri, W. A. and Dissanayake, A. S. (2006). Coconut fats. Ceylon Medical Journal, 51 (2): 47-51.
[23]  Chaudhary, P. S. and Shanta, P. (2015). Development of smoothies from banana pulp and orange juice. International Journal of Applied Research, 1 (9): 261-263.
[24]  Onwuka, G.I. (2018). Food Analysis and Instrumentation (Theory and Practice)-Second edition. Naphtali Printers, Nigeria, pp. 299-314.
[25]  Aurelia, M.P., Andrei, F.D. and Slawomir, K. (2008). Ascorbic acid determination in commercial fruit juice samples by cyclic voltammetry. Journal of Automated Methods and Management in Chemistry, 1:1-8.Article ID: 937651
[26]  Surinder, N. (2006). Fate of vitamin C in commercial fruit juices. Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the post-graduate diploma in Applied Science (Research), Auckland University of Technology, Auckland. pp. 42-43.
[27]  Mohammed, A. R., Amal, Z. S., Zorit¸ A. S. D. and Bele, C. (2015). Effect of pasteurization and Shelf-life on the physicochemical properties of physalis (Physalis peruviana l.) juice. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 39(6): 1051-1060.
[28]  Ball, G.F. (2006). Vitamins in foods (Analysis, Bioavailability and Stability). CRC Press (Taylor and Francis group): NewYork. Pp. 39-47, 57.
[29]  Edwards, A. J., Vinyard, B. T. and Wiley, E. R. (2003). Consumption of watermelon juice increases plasma concentrations of lycopene and beta-carotene in humans. Journal of Nutrition, 133 (4): 1043-1050.
[30]  Francisco, T. Z. (2015). Classification of fruits proximate and mineral content: Principal Component, Cluster, Meta‑Analyses. Nereis RevistaI beroamericana Interdisciplinar DeMétodos, Modelización Simulación, 7 (5): 1888-8550.
[31]  Walking, R. M., Noci, F., Cronin, D. A., Lyng, J. G. and Morgan, D. J. (2010). Shelf-life and sensory attributes of a fruit smoothie-type beverage processed with moderate heat and pulsed electric fields. LWT Food Science and Technology, 43 (10): 1067-1073.
[32]  Balaswamy, K., Prabhakara, R. P. G., Nagender, A., Narsing, R. G., Sathiya, M. K., Jyothirmayi, T., Math, R. G. and Satyanarayana, A. (2013). Development of smoothies from selected fruit pulps/juices. International Food Research Journal, 20 (3): 1181-1185.
[33]  Gulf Standards (2000). Microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, Part 1. GCC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. pp. 27-30.
[34]  Femenia, A., Simal, S., Taberner, C. G. and Rossello, C. (2007). Effects of heat treatment and dehydration on pineapple (Ananas comosus) cell walls. International Journal of Food Engineering, 3 (3): 1-14.
[35]  Pino, J. and Febles, Y. (2013). Odour-active compounds in banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish. Food Chemistry, 141 (13): 795-801.