American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajfst Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018, 6(6), 290-294
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-6-6-9
Open AccessArticle

Impact of Cow Milk Manufacturing Processes on the Degradation of Malathion Pesticide Residues

Walid A. S. Gafour1,

1Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza., Egypt

Pub. Date: December 22, 2018

Cite this paper:
Walid A. S. Gafour. Impact of Cow Milk Manufacturing Processes on the Degradation of Malathion Pesticide Residues. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018; 6(6):290-294. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-6-6-9

Abstract

The main objective of the current research aimed at evaluating the impact of the manufacturing processes of cow milk such as pasteurization, boiling, ultra-heat treatment, yoghurt fermentation, milk skimming, cream, butter, and ghee production on the degradation of an organophosphate pesticide, Malathion. For that purpose, samples of raw cow milk spiked with Malathion at level 0.5 mg/kg were used. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method was used to extract the malathion-spiked milk samples and HPLC-Photo Diode Array (HPLC-PDA) was used as an analytical tool. The precision of the analytical method was ranged between 90.5-97.8 %. The obtained findings demonstrated that sterilization, and boiling were more effective than pasteurization in Malathion degradation (the degradation efficiency were 91.2, 82.2 and 45.2 %, respectively). Regarding the impact of fermentation, it was found that Malathion degradation increased with the progress of cold storage. It was 56, 80, and 97 % at 1, 7, and 14 days of yoghurt storage. Moreover, a cheese manufacturing also had a positive effect on Malathion degradation where it was 53 and 60.8 % in cheese after 1 and 7 days. The data also displayed that Malathion retained in fatty milk products such as cream (91 %), butter (88 %), and ghee (12.3 %). In view of this, it could be concluded that manufacturing processes such as sterilization, boiling, fermentation and curd coagulation processes had positive impact on Malathion degradation in spiked samples of cow milk.

Keywords:
Malathion organophosphate Spiked Cow Milk heat treatments Fermentation Coagulation

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Iftikhar, B., S. Siddiqui and S. Rehman, 2014. Assessment of the dietary transfer of pesticides to dairy milk and its effect on human health. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 13: 476-485.
 
[2]  Shaker E.M., E.E., 2015. Elsharkawy Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 39, pp. 433-440.
 
[3]  Fagnani, R., V. Beloti, A.P.P Battaglini, K.S. Dunga, R.Tamanini, 2011.Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle. Pesq. Vet. Bras. 31(7): 598-602.
 
[4]  Cannon J.M., V. Reddy, E. Murrill, 1996. Characterization of Malathion residues in dairy goats and poultry. J. Agric. Food Chem., 44, 3365-3373. 6.
 
[5]  Gazzotti, T., P. Sticca, E. Zironi, B. Lugoboni, A. Serraino and G. Pagliuca, 2009. Determinatio of 15 organophosphorus pesticides in Italian raw milk. Bull. Environ. Contaminat. Toxicol., 82: 251-254.
 
[6]  Salsa, H., M. M. Gonzalez, M. Noa, N. A. Perez, G. Díaz, R. Gutierrez , H. Zazueta and I. Osuna, 2003. Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Mexican Commercial Pasteurized Milk J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 4468-4471.
 
[7]  FAO and WHO. 2008. Joint FAO / WHO food standards programme: Codex alimentarius commission. Pesticide Residues in Food, Volume, 11, Rome, Italy.
 
[8]  AbouDonia, M.A., A.A.K. Abou-Arab, A. Enb, M.H. El-Senaity and N.S. Abd-Rabou, 2010. Chemical composition of raw milk and the accumulation of pesticide residues in milk products. Global Veterinaria, 4: 6-14.
 
[9]  Bo, L.Y. and X.H. Zhao, 2010. Preliminary study on the degradation of seven organophosphorus pesticides in bovine milk during lactic acid fermentation or heat treatment. Afr. J. Microbial. Res., 4: 1171-1179.
 
[10]  Bo, L.Y., Y.H. Zhang and Zhao, X.H., 2011. Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing. J. Serbian Chem. Soc., 76: 353-362.
 
[11]  Abd-Rabo, F.H., H. Elsalamony and Sally S. Sakr, 2016. Reduction of pesticide residues in Egyptian buffalo milk by some processing treatments. Int. J. Dairy Sci., 11: 75-80.
 
[12]  Singh S.; N. Krishnaiah; T. M. Rao; R. Pushpa and G. Reddy, 2017. Effect of heat processing on degradation of organophosphorus compounds in milk, The Pharma Innovation Journal; 6(3): 209-212.
 
[13]  AOAC.2003. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. USA.
 
[14]  AOAC, 2007.07. Official Method Pesticide Residues in Food by Acetonitrile Extraction and Partitioning with Magnesium Sulfate. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry, First Action. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. USA.
 
[15]  Fahmi, A.H. and Sharara, H.A. (1950).Studies on Egyptian Domiaticheese.J.Dairy Res.17 (3), 312-328.
 
[16]  Abou-Arab, A.A., 1987. Effect of microbial fermentation on pesticide residues in milk. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Food Science Department, Ain-Shams University.
 
[17]  Abd-Rabo, F.H., N.S. Ahmed, A.E. Abou-Dawod and F.A. Hassan, 1989. Organochlorine, Organophos-phorus and Carbamate pesticides cause changes in some properties of buffalo’s milk. Egypt. J. Dairy Sci., 17: 105-114.
 
[18]  Zhao, X.H. and J. Wang, 2012. A brief study on the degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in skimmed milk cultured with Lactobacillus spp. At 42EC. Food Chem., 131: 300-304.
 
[19]  Bogialli, S., R. Curini, A. Di Corcia and M. Nazzari, 2005. Analysis of Urea Derivative Herbicides in Water and Soil. In: Chromatographic Analysis of the Environment, Nollet, L.M.L. (Ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, ISBN-13: 9781420027983, pp: 935-975.
 
[20]  Ozbey, A. and U. Uygun, 2007. Behaviour of some organophosphorus pesticide residues in peppermint tea during the infusion process. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 104: 237-241.
 
[21]  Abdou, S.M., S.M. Abd-El-Hady, M.B. El-Alfy, A.A. Abd-El-Gawaad and E. Abo-El-Amaim, 1983. Organochlorine pesticide residues in buffalo’s milk in kalubia province and the effect of the presence of insecticides on the coagulation time. Egypt. J. Dairy Sci., 11: 197-203.
 
[22]  Pagliuca, G.,A. Serraino, T.Gazzotti, E. Zironi, A. Borsari and R. Rosmini, 2006. Organophosphorus pesticides residues in Italian raw milk. J. Dairy Res., 73: 340-344. January 15, 2016
 
[23]  Kaushik, G., S. Satya and S.N. Naik, 2009. Food processing a tool to pesticide residue dissipation-a review. Food Res. Int. J., 42: 26-40.
 
[24]  Zhang, H., Z.F. Chai, H.B. Sun and J.L. Zhang, 2006. A survey of extractable persistent organochlorine pollutants in Chinese commercial yogurt. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 1413-1419.