American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020, 8(1), 1-13
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-8-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Complementary Foods from Blends of Malted and Non-Malted Sorghum, Soybean and Moringa Oleifera Seed Flours

Bello A.A.1, , Gernah D.I.1, Ariahu C.C.1 and Ikya J.K1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi

Pub. Date: November 27, 2019

Cite this paper:
Bello A.A., Gernah D.I., Ariahu C.C. and Ikya J.K. Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Complementary Foods from Blends of Malted and Non-Malted Sorghum, Soybean and Moringa Oleifera Seed Flours. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020; 8(1):1-13. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-8-1-1


Complementary foods for infants in developing countries are mainly cereals, thus meeting all their nutrient needs is difficult due to micronutrient deficiency. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of complementary foods from blends of malted and non-malted sorghum, soybean and Moringa oleifera seed flours. Four samples each of malted and non-malted sorghum and soybean based foods were formulated by material balance to obtain 16g protein/100g food by adding to each formulated food sample; 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% Moringa oleifera seed flour respectively. The food formulations were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory properties using standard methods. Results showed that malting and addition of Moringa oleifera significantly (P< 0.05) improved the properties of the complementary foods. Viscosity, bulk density and swelling index decreased while water absorption capacity and reconstitution index increased. There were reductions in moisture content, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate and energy contents but increases in crude ash and crude protein contents. All the micronutrients increased in malted food formulations. The pH, peroxide value and total volatile bases were lower in malted food formulations. Appearance, aroma, taste and overall acceptability increased except the food formulation that had 15% Moringa oleifera seed flour addition. The most acceptable food formulation was the one that had 10% Moringa oleifera seed flour addition. In conclusion, this study showed the possibility of producing complementary foods from cheap raw materials using simple malting technology which can also meet the nutrient needs of infants and children and thus its production should be encouraged.

malted sorghum non-malted sorghum soybean Moringa oleifera seed complementary food food formulation infants children

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Lutter, C. K. and Rivera, J. A, “Nutritional status of infants and young children and characteristics of their diets” The Journal of nutrition, 133(9), 2941-2949, 2003.
[2]  Makinde, P. M. and Lapido, A. T, “Physico-chemical and Microbial Quality of Sorghum–based Complementary Food Enriched with Soybean (Glycine max) and Sesame (Sesamum indicum)”. Journal of Technology, 10 (2), 46-49, 2012.
[3]  UNICEF, “State of the World's Children: Celebrating 20 Years of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.” UNICEF. 2009.
[4]  W.H.O, “Management of the child with a serious infection or severe malnutrition: guidelines for care at the first-referral level in developing countries”. Department of Child & Adolescent Health, 2000.
[5]  Bruyeron, O., Denizeau, M., Berger, J. and Trèche, “Marketing complementary foods and supplements in Burkina Faso, Madagascar, and Vietnam: Lessons learned from the Nutridev program” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 31(2), S154-S167, 2010.
[6]  Ariahu, C. C., Ukpabi, U. and Mbajunwa, K. O,” Production of African bread-fruit (Treculia africana) and soybean (Glycine max) seed based food formulations. 1: Effects of germination and fermentation on nutritional and organoleptic quality” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 54(3), 193-206, 1999a.
[7]  Gernah, D. I., Ariahu, C. C. and Umeh, E. U, “Physical and Microbiological Evaluation of Food Formulations from Malted and Fermented Maize (Zea mays L.) Fortified with Defatted Sesame (Sesamun indicum L.) Flour” Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4(3), 148-154, 2012.
[8]  Kuyper, E., Vitta, B. and Dewey, K, “Novel and underused food sources of key nutrients for complementary feeding”. Alive & Thrive Technical Brief, 6, 1-8, 2013.
[9]  Ihekoronye, A.I. and Ngoddy, P. O, Integrated food science and technology for the tropics, London and Basingstoke: Macmillian publishers Ltd., London, 1985, 165-193.
[10]  Mbah, B. O., Eme, P. E. and Ogbusu, O. F, “Effect of cooking methods (boiling and roasting) on nutrients and anti-nutrients content of Moringa oleifera seeds”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11(3), 211, 2012.
[11]  PAG, “Guidelines on protein rich mixtures for use in wearing foods”. Protein Advisory Group, United Nations, N.Y, 1980.
[12]  SON, Determinant of Child Nutrition in Nigeria. (K17) Royal Tropical Institute. Development Policies and Practice/Vrije Universitau Amsterdam, 2008.
[13]  Smith, P.G, Introduction to food process engineering, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, N.Y., 2003, 47-72.
[14]  Uvere, P. O., Ngoddy, P. O. and Nnanyelugo, D. O,” Effect of amylase-rich flour (ARF) treatment on the viscosity of fermented complementary foods” Food and nutrition bulletin, 23(2), 190-195, 2002.
[15]  Okezie, B. O. and Bello, A. B, “ Physicochemical and functional properties of winged bean flour and isolate compared with soy isolate” Journal of Food Science, 53(2), 450-454, 1988.
[16]  Onwuka, G.I, Food Analysis and instrumentation, theory and practice, Naphthali Prints, Surulere Lagos Nigeria , 133-137, 2005.
[17]  Afolayan, M. O., Adama, K. K., Oberafo, A., Omojola, M. and Thomas, S, “Isolation and Characterization Studies of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Root Starch as a Potential Industrial Biomaterial”. American Journal of Materials Science, 4(2): 97-102, 2014.
[18]  AOAC, Official methods of analysis of AOAC International (No.543/L357). AOAC International. 2012.
[19]  Iombor, T. T., Umoh, E. J. and Olakumi, E, “Proximate composition and organoleptic properties of complementary food formulated from millet (Pennisetum psychostachynum), soybeans (Glycine max) and crayfish (Euastacus spp)”, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(10), 1676-1679, 2009.
[20]  Oluwamukomi, M.O, “Nutritional, physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of sorghum and cowpea based weaning formulations” Nig. Food J, 22, 11-17, 2003.
[21]  Iwe, M. O, The Science and Technology of Soybeans Chemistry, Nutrition, Processing, Utilization, Rejoint Communications Services Ltd. Enugu, Nigeria. 2003, 115-123.
[22]  Elin, H., Senol, L. and Ainsworth, P,” Effect of fermented/germinated cowpea flour addition on the rheological and baking properties of wheat flour” Journal of food engineering, 63(2), 177-184, 2004.
[23]  Tiwari, B. K., Gowen, A. and McKenna, B. (Eds.), Pulse foods: processing, quality and nutraceutical applications. Academic Press, 2011.
[24]  Ijarotimi, O. S., Adeoti, O. A. and Ariyo, O, “Comparative study on nutrient composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristics of raw, germinated, and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour” Food science & nutrition, 1(6), 452-463, 2013.
[25]  Olitino, H. M., Onimawo, I. A., and Egbekun, M. K,” Effect of germination on chemical compositions, biochemical constituents and antinutritional factors of soybean (Glycine max) seeds”. J. Sci.. Food Agric, 73, 1-9, 2007.
[26]  Inyang, C. U. and Idoko, C. A,“Assessment of the quality of “ogi” made from malted millet” African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(22), 234-237, 2006.
[27]  Abdulrahaman, S. M., Elmaki, H. B., Idris, W. H., Hassan, A. B., Babiker, E. E., & El-Tinay, A. H, “Antinutritional factor content and hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet cultivars as affected by germination” International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 58(1), 6-17, 2007.
[28]  Dubey, C., Khan, F. and Srivastava, A, “Nutritional and antinutritional evaluation of Forest and hybrid legumes seeds”. Elect. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem, 7, 2900-2905, 2008.
[29]  Chinma, C. E. and Gernah, D. I, “Physico-chemical and Sensory Properties of Cookies Produced from Cassava/Soyabean/mango Composite Flour” Journal of Food Technology. 5(3), 256-260, 2009.
[30]  Blake, C. J, “Analytical procedures for water-soluble vitamins in foods and dietary supplements: a review”. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 389 (1), 63-76, 2007.
[31]  Marrero, E.D., Ruiz, R., Ruiz, T.E. and Macias, R, Feeding systems with grasses and legumes for replacement heifers, INRA Publication, Versaculles, 1989, 401-4101.
[32]  Sreelatha, S. and Padma, P.R “Antioxidant Activity and total phenoli content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity”. Plants Foods Human Nutrition, 64(4), 303-311, 2009.