American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019, 7(6), 234-241
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-7-6-11
Open AccessArticle

The Effects of Germination and Roasting on Nutraceutical and Antioxidant Properties of Jirani Variety of Millet

Oluwatoyin Oluwole1, W. M.A.D. Binosha Fernando2, Keiron Audain3, Olufemi Fasanmade4, Oluwatosin Ijabadeniyi5, Kolawole Falade6, Adjei Maame Yaakwaah7 and Vijay Jayasena8,

1Department of Food Technology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, Lagos Nigeria

2School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Australia

3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Zambia, Zambia

4Department of Internal Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria

5Department of Food and Biotechnology, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa

6Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

7Department of Food science and Nutrition, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana

8School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Australia

Pub. Date: October 25, 2019

Cite this paper:
Oluwatoyin Oluwole, W. M.A.D. Binosha Fernando, Keiron Audain, Olufemi Fasanmade, Oluwatosin Ijabadeniyi, Kolawole Falade, Adjei Maame Yaakwaah and Vijay Jayasena. The Effects of Germination and Roasting on Nutraceutical and Antioxidant Properties of Jirani Variety of Millet. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019; 7(6):234-241. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-7-6-11


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of processing variables (germination time, roasting temperature and time) on the phytonutrients and antioxidants activity of millet. The germination time employed in this study ranged from 24 - 72 h, roasting temperature ranged from 112.5 -120.0°C and the roasting time ranged from 15 - 21 min based on an earlier preliminary study. All samples exhibited antioxidant properties and these properties were dose dependent. Positive correlations were obtained between the antioxidant activity of the samples and the content of the phytochemicals. Both germination and roasting time had an effect on the total antioxidant capacity of the germinated millet product. There was an interactive effect between the germination time and roasting time on the total antioxidant capacity and DPPH scavenging property. A negative interactive effect of germination time and roasting temperature as well as roasting temperature and roasting time on the total antioxidant capacity and DPPH values were observed. The germinated and roasted millet products showed the total antioxidant capacity of 39.30 - 66.01 mg/100g, DPPH value of 68.26 - 79.65 µg/ml and reducing power values of 0.353 - 0.441 µg/ml. The results demonstrated that germinated and roasted millet could be useful as an ingredient for functional food. The optimum conditions for processing millet into a functional food ingredient are germination time of 68.97 h, roasting temperature of 114.79°C and roasting time of 15.00 min, resulting at roasted millet product that possess 54.644 mg/100g of total antioxidant capacity, 72.152 µg/ml of DPPH value and 0.376µg/ml of reducing power values.

millet phytonutrient germinate optimize antioxidant capacity reducing power DPPH

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 3


[1]  AOAC, “Official Method of Analysis: Moisture and Ash. Association of Official Analytical Chemists”, Arlington: 20th edn, 2016.
[2]  Benincasa, P., Falcinelli, B., Lutts, S., Stagnari, F. and Galieni, A, “Sprouted grains. A comprehensive review”. Nutrient, 11(2), 421, 2019.
[3]  Burits, M. and Bucar, F, “Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil”, Phytother Res 14:323-328, 2000.
[4]  Chalorcharoenying, W., Lomthaisong, K., Suriharn, B. and Lertrat, K., “Germination process increases phytochemicals in corn”. International Food Research Journal, 24: 552-558, 2017
[5]  Chung, S.I., Pangan-Lo, L.M and Kang, M.Y, “Effect of Germination on the Antioxidant Capacity of Pigmented Rice(Oryza sativa L. cv Superjami and Superhangmi)”. Food Science and Technology Research 22(3):387-394, 2016.
[6]  Cuendet, M., Hostettmann, K.,. and Potterat, O, “ Iridoid glucosides with free radical scavenging properties from Fagraea blumet Helvetica Chirurgica” Helvetica Chemica ACTA 80:73-83. 1997.
[7]  Devi, P.B., Vijayabharathi, R., Sathyabama, S., Malleshi, N.G. and Priyadarisini, V.B, “Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fibre” A review. Journal of Food Science and Technolgies. 51: 1021-1040, 2014.
[8]  Dynolokes, L., Roony, L M, “Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants” Journal of cereal science , 44:236-251, 2006.
[9]  Inns, E.L., Buggey, L.A., Booer, C., and Nursten, H.E., and Ames, J.M, “Effect of modification of the kilning regimen on levels of free ferulic acid and antioxidant activity in malt”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(17):9335-43, 2011.
[10]  Maillard, M.N., and Berset, C, “Evolution of antioxidant activity during kilning: Role of insoluble bound phenolic acids of barley and malt”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43: 1789-93, 1997.
[11]  Melo, L., Cardoso, J.M.P., Battochio, J.R., and Bolini, H.M.A, “Using response surface methodology and high-intensity sweetneners’ positive synergy of optimize peach nectar acceptability”. Food and Nutrition. Sciences, 4:503-507, 2013.
[12]  Mishra, K., Ojha, H., and Chaudhury, N, “Estimation of antiradical properties of antioxidants using DPPH assay: Critical review and results”. Food Chemistry, 130. 1036-1043, 2012.
[13]  Nandhakumar, E., and Indumathi, P, “In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (L.) fruit pulp”. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, 6: 142-14, 2013.
[14]  Nelson, K., Stojanovska, L., Vasilferic, T., Mattai, M, “Germinated grains. A superior whole grain functional food. Review. Natural health product therapies”. Canadian science publishing, 2013.
[15]  NKhata S. G., Kamau, E., Ayua, E., and Bosco, S.J, “Fermentation and germination improves nutritional value of cereals and legumes through activation of endogenous enzymes”. Food Science and Nutrition, 6(7): 1-13, 2018.
[16]  Otles, S., And Ozgoz, S, “Health effects of dietary fibre”, Acta scientiarum polonorum technologia alimentaria 13(2); 191-20, 2014.
[17]  Pisoschi, A.M., and Negulescu, G.P, “Methods for total antioxidant activity determination”. A Review. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry, 2011.
[18]  Prieto, P., Pineda, M., and Aguilar, M, “Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of vitamin E”. Analytical. Biochemistry, 269: 337-341, 1999.
[19]  Rahal, A., Mahima, Verma, A.K., Kumar, A., Tiwari, R., Kapoor, Chakraborty, S., and Dhama, K, “Phytonutrients and Nutraceuticals in Vegetables and their Multi-dimensional Medicinal and Health Benefits for Humans and their companion animals”. A Review: Journal of Biological Scieneces, 14(10): 1-19, 2014.
[20]  Rao, M., Muralikrishna G, “Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of free and bound phenolic acids from native and malted finger millet”. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry, 50: 889-892, 2002.
[21]  Rice-Evans, C., Miller, N., and Paganga, G, “A Review: Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds”. Trends in plant science, 2(4):152-159, 1997.
[22]  Samaras, T.S., Camburn, P.A., Chandra, S.X., Gordon, M.H., and Ames, J.M, “Antioxidant properties of kilned and roasted malts”. J. Agric. Food Chem, 53(20):8068-74, 2005.
[23]  Sánchez-Vioque, R., Polissiou, M., Astraka, K.., de- los Mozos-Pascual, M., and Tarantilis, P, “Polyphenol composition and antioxidant and metal chelating activities of the solid residues from the essential oil industry”. Industrial Crop and Product 49: 150-159, 2013.
[24]  Sharma, S., Saxena, D.C., and Riar, C.S, “Antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids and antinutritional characteristics of germinated foxtail millet (Setaria italica)”. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 1:1, 2015.
[25]  Shobana S., Krishnaswamy K., Sudha V., Malleshi NG., Anjana RM., Palaniappan L et al ,Finger millet (Ragi eleusinecoracana L); “A review of its nutritional properties, processing and plausible health benefits”, Advances in Food and Nutritional Research, 69: 1-39.
[26]  Sidhi, J.S., Kabir, and Huffman, F.G, “Functional of foods from cereal grains”. International Journal of Food Properties, 10. 231-244, 2007.
[27]  Sripriya, G., Chandrasekharan, K., Murty, V.S., and Chandra, T.S, “ESR spectroscopic studies on free radical quenching action of finger millet (Eleusine coracana)”, Food Chemistry. 57: 537-540, 1996.
[28]  Subba-Rao, M., and Muralikrishna, G, “Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of Free and Bound Phenolic Acids from Native and Malted Finger Millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana Indaf-15)”, Journal of .Agricultural Food Chemistry 50:889-92, 2002.
[29]  Tuekaew, J., Siriwatanatananametanon, N., Wongkrajang, Y., Temsirikkul, R., and Jantan, I, “Evaluation of the antioxidant activities of Ya-hom intajak a Thai herbal formulation, and its component plants”, Tropical journal of pharmaceutical research, 2014.
[30]  Upadhyaya, H.D., and Vetriventhan , M, “Underutilized climate-smart nutrient rich small millets for food and nutritional security. Regional expert consultation on underutilized crops for food and nutritional security in Asia and the Pacific”. Thematic strategic papers and country status reports, 2018.
[31]  Vanderhaegen, B., Neven, H., Verachtert, and Derdelinckx, G, “The chemistry of beer aging—a critical review”. Food Chemistry. 95: 357-81, 2006.
[32]  Wadika, D.D., Premvalli, R.S., Satyanarayanswamy, Y.S., and Bawa, A.S, “Lipid profile in finger millet”. J Food Science Technology 44: 79-81, 2007.
[33]  Xiang, N., Xinbo, G., Liu, F., Li, Q., Hu, J., and Brennan, C.S, “Effect of Light and dark germination on the phenolic biosynthesis, phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities in Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) sprouts”. International Journal of Molecular Science. 18: 1-13, 2017.
[34]  Woffenden, H.M., Ames, J.M., Chandra, S., Anese, M., and Nicoli, M.C, “Effect of kilning on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of pale malts”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50:4925-33, 2002.
[35]  Zhang, Y.J., Gan, R.Y., Li, S., Zhou, Y., Li, A.N., Xu, D.P., and Li, H.B, “Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases”, Molecules. 20: 21138-56, 2015.