American Journal of Food and Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2374-1155 ISSN (Online): 2374-1163 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mihalis Panagiotidis
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2018, 6(4), 108-114
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-6-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions of Unrefined Shea Butter Using Response Surface Methodology

Oseni T. Nurah1, and Iyasele U. Julius2

1Biochemistry Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City, Nigeria

2Chemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

Pub. Date: August 03, 2018

Cite this paper:
Oseni T. Nurah and Iyasele U. Julius. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions of Unrefined Shea Butter Using Response Surface Methodology. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2018; 6(4):108-114. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-6-4-3


The optimum condition for the extraction of unrefined Shea butter via (aqueous) traditional extraction method was determined using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate the effect of three independent variables, namely- roasting time (min), roasting temperature (°C) and clarification time (min) on the responses, oil yield (%), peroxide value (meq/kg), free fatty acid (%) and unsaponifiable matter (%). The CCD consisted of 8 factors, 6 axial points and 5 central points to give total of 19 experimental points. Data were analyzed using design expert 7 software. Second order polynomial terms were used to predict the responses. The result indicated that oil yield, unsaponifiable and peroxide value were optimized with all having R2 > 80% except for free fatty acid which was not a significant response (p = 0.58). The optimal extraction conditions for optimizing the responses were 106°C, 120 min and 90 min of roasting temperature, roasting time and clarification time respectively. Predicted response values were in agreement with experimental values indicating the success of RSM in optimizing the quality parameters of Shea butter. This result also reflects that it is more suitable to roast Shea kernel at low temperature for longer duration than at higher temperature for short time which is the current practice in Nigeria.

Shea butter response surface methodology extraction condition quality optimization

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Elias, M., & Carney, J. (2007). African Shea Butter: A Feminized Subsidy from Nature. Africa, 77(1), 37-62.
[2]  Alander, J. (2004). Shea butter-a multifunctional ingredient for food and cosmetics. Lipid Technology, 16(9), 202-205.
[3]  Megnanou, R.-M., Niamke, S., & Diopoh, J. (2007). Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of optimized and traditional shea butters from Côte d’Ivoire. African Journal of Biochemistry Research, 1(4), 41-47.
[4]  Garba, I., Nwawe, C., & Oisakede, I. (2011). The potentials of shea nut tree to the Nigerian economy. International Journal of …, 4(1), 62-72.
[5]  Lovett, P. N. (2005). Shea butter industry expanding in West Africa. INFORM - International News on Fats, Oils and Related Materials, 16(5), 273.
[6]  Nsogning Dongmo, S., Womeni, H. M., Tchouanguep Mbiapo, F., Linder, M., Fanni, J., Zarnkow, M., & Becker, T. (2014). Cooking and drying process optimisation of shea (Butyrospermum parkii) butter extraction. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 32(6), 578-584.
[7]  Megnanou, R.-M., Niamke, S., Mégnanou, R., Niamké, S., Megnanou, R.-M., & Niamke, S. (2013). Effect of Nut Treatments on Shea Butter Physicochemical Criteria and Wrapper Hygienic Quality Influence on Microbiological Properties. Journal of Food Research, 2(5), 66.
[8]  Egwuonwu, C., Ige, C., & Salami, O. (2013). Code of Practice for Production, Procesing and Storage of Shea kernel and Shea butter (unrefined) (pp. 3244).
[9]  Obibuzor, J. U., Abigor, R. D., Omamor, I. B., Omoriyekemwen, V. O., Okunwaye, T., & Okogbenin, E. A. (2013). Evaluation and quantification of the contributions of damaged shea kernels to the quality of Nigerian shea butter. International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation, 4(1), 33-45.
[10]  Box, G. E. P., & Wilson, K. B. (1951). On the Experimental Attainment of Optimum Conditions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 13(1), 1-45.
[11]  Giovanni, M. (1983). Response Surface Methodology and product optimization. Food Technology, 37(11), 41-45.
[12]  Capanzana, M. V., & Buckle, K. A. (1997). Optimisation of germination conditions by response surface methodology of a high amylose rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 30(2), 155-163.
[13]  Kashudhan, H., Dixit, A., & Upadhyay, A. (2017). Optimization of ingredients for the development of wheatgrass based therapeutical juice using response surface methodology ( RSM ). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6(2), 338-345.
[14]  Lee, W. C., Yusof, S., Hamid, N. S. A., & Baharin, B. S. (2006). Optimizing conditions for hot water extraction of banana juice using response surface methodology (RSM). Journal of Food Engineering, 75(4), 473-479.
[15]  Liew Abdullah, A. G., Sulaiman, N. M., Aroua, M. K., & Megat Mohd Noor, M. J. (2007). Response surface optimization of conditions for clarification of carambola fruit juice using a commercial enzyme. Journal of Food Engineering, 81(1), 6-71.
[16]  Liu, J., Miao, S., Wen, X., & Sun, Y. (2009). Optimization of polysaccharides (ABP) extraction from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murill using response surface methodology (RSM). Carbohydrate Polymers, 78(4), 704-709.
[17]  Liyana-Pathirana, C., & Shahidi, F. (2005). Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry, 93(1), 47-56.
[18]  Mehmood, T. (2015). Optimization of the canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions stabilized by food grade mixed surfactants using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry, 183, 1-7.
[19]  Mendes, L. C., De Menezes, H. C., Aparecida, M., & Da Silva, A. P. (2001). Optimization of the roasting of robusta coffee (C. canephora conillon) using acceptability tests and RSM. Food Quality and Preference, 12(2), 153-162.
[20]  Thakur, S., & Saxena, D. C. (2000). Formulation of Extruded Snack Food (Gum Based Cereal-Pulse Blend): Optimization of Ingredients Levels Using Response Surface Methodology. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 33(5), 354-361.
[21]  Shucheng Liu, Feng Yang , Chaohua Zhang, Hongwu J. , Pengzhi Honga, C. Den. (2009). Optimization of process parameters for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Passiflora seed oil by response surface method .... The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 48, 9-14.
[22]  Tan, C., Ghazali, H. M., Kuntom, A., Tan, C., & Ariffin, A. A. (2009). Extraction and physicochemical properties of low free fatty acid crude palm oil. Food Chemistry, 113(2), 645-650.
[23]  Zhang, Q., Zhang, Z., Yue, X., Fan, X., Li, T., & Chen, S. (2014). Response surface optimization of ultrasound assisted oil extraction from almond. Food Chemistry, 116(2), 513-518.
[24]  Zhang, Y. L., Li, S., Yin, C. P., Jiang, D. H., Yan, F. F., & Xu, T. (2012). Response surface optimisation of aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from bayberry (Myrica rubra) kernels. Food Chemistry, 135(1), 304-308.
[25]  Ajala, E. O., Aberuagba, F., Olaniyan, A. M., & Onifade, K. R. (2015). Enzymatic Extraction of Shea Butter: Optimization Study Using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(1), 730-738.
[26]  Yonas, G. A., Shimelis, E. A., & Sisay, A. F. (2016). Effect of processing factors on Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) butter extraction. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 66(January), 172-178.
[27]  Honfo, F. G., LINNEMANN, A. R., GUO, M., AKISSOE, N., SOUMANOU, M. M., & Van BOEKEL, M. A. J. S. (2017). Influence of roasting of shea kernels on their fat content and some quality characteristics of shea butter. Journal of Food Studies, 6(1), 66.
[28]  Mohagir, A. M., Kamga, R., Kapseu, C., & Abi, C. F. (2009). Optimization of some pre-treatments involved in the press extraction of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner F.) butter. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 2(4), 372-384.
[29]  Mohagir, A. M., Bup, N. D., Abi, C. F., Kamga, R., & Kapseu, R. C. (2015). Optimisation of Decolourisation Conditions of Crude Shea (Vitellaria Gaertner F) Butter: Black Type. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 5(4), 515-525.
[30]  Oluranti, J., Jolaade, T., Adetayo, J., & Authour, C. (2014). Optimization of Oil Yield from Shea Kernels using Response Surface Methodology and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 3(8), 1611-1620.
[31]  Jude, U. O., Roland, D. A., Ibiso, O., Vivien, O., Emmanuel, A. O., & Tonbra, O. (2014). A two year seasonal survey of the quality of shea butter produced in Niger state of Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 8(2), 64-74.
[32]  MPOB. (2004). MPOB Test Methods.
[33]  IUPAC. (1987). Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives. (A. Paquot, C. Hautfenne, Ed.) (7th ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publication.
[34]  AOAC. (2009). Official methods of analysis of association of official analytical chemists. Washington, DC (17th ed.). Washington, DC.
[35]  Aculey, P. C., Lowor, S. T., Kumi, W. O., & Assuah, M. K. (2012). The effect of traditional primary processing of the shea fruit on the kernel butter yield and quality. American Journal of Food Technology, 7(2), 73-81.
[36]  Matos, L., & Mabiala, B. (2011). Influence of physical pretreatments of sheanuts ( Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn .) on butter quality, (m), 1152-1160.
[37]  Honfo, F. G., Akissoe, N., Linnemann, A. R., Soumanou, M., & Van Boekel, M. A. J. S. (2014). Nutritional Composition of Shea Products and Chemical Properties of Shea Butter: A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54(5), 673-686.
[38]  RIGHT SHEA. (2014). The purpose of kneading in Shea butter processing. Retrieved April 26, 2018, from
[39]  Shekarau, J., Oriaje, L., Kpelly, S., & Loveth, P. (2013). Current Practices in the Production and Processing of Sheanut. In J. Atehnkeng, H. A. Makun, O. Osibo, & R. Bandyopadhyay (Eds.), Quality Production of Shea butter in Nigeria (pp. 17-25). Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA.
[40]  Alander, J., & Andersson, A. C. (2002). The Shea Butter Family – the Complete Emollient Range for Skin Care Formulations. Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufacture Worldwide, 2002, 28–32.
[41]  Honfo, F. G., Linnemann, A. R., Akissoe, N., Soumanou, M. M., & Van Boekel, M. A. J. S. (2013). Characteristics of traditionally processed shea kernels and butter. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(8), 1714-1721.
[42]  Nahm, H. S. (2011). Quality Characteristics of west african shea butter. Development. Retrieved from
[43]  Oseni, T. N., WMADB, F., Ranil, C., Isona, G., & Vijay, J. (2017). Effect of extraction techniques on the quality of coconut oil. African Journal of Food Science, 11(3), 58-66.
[44]  Seneviratne, K. N., HapuarachchI, C. D., & Ekanayake, S. (2009). Comparison of the phenolic-dependent antioxidant properties of coconut oil extracted under cold and hot conditions. Food Chemistry, 114(4), 1444-1449.
[45]  Chukwu, O., & Adgidzi, P. P. (2008). Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of Shea-butter (Butyrospermum paradoxum) related to its value for food and industrial utilisation. International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation, 1(3), 320.
[46]  Okullo, J.., Omujal, F., J.G, A., Vuzi, P. ., Namutebi, a, & Nyanzi, S.. (2010). Physico-chemical characteristics of Shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn.) oil from the Shea districts of Uganda. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 10(1), 2070-2084.