American Journal of Food and Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2374-1155 ISSN (Online): 2374-1163 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mihalis Panagiotidis
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American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2018, 6(1), 9-13
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-6-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Hydrogenized Water Effects on Protection of Brain Cells from Oxidative Stress and Glutamate Toxicity

Robert Settineri1, , Jie Zhou2, Jin Ji3, Rita R. Ellithorpe4, Steven Rosenblatt5, Antonio Jimenez6, Shigeo Ohta7, Gonzalo Ferreira8 and Garth L. Nicolson9

1Sierra Productions Research, Irvine, CA USA

2Brunswick Laboratories, Inc., Southborough, MA USA

3PulchriBio Intl, Boston, MA USA

4Tustin Longevity Center, Tustin, CA USA

5Saint John's Health Center, Santa Monica, CA USA

6Hope4Cancer Institute, Baja California, Mexico

7Department of Neurology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

8Department of Biophysicas, Laboratory of Ion Channels, School of Medicine, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay

9Department of Molecular Pathology, The Institute for Molecular Medicine, Huntington Beach, CA USA

Pub. Date: February 09, 2018

Cite this paper:
Robert Settineri, Jie Zhou, Jin Ji, Rita R. Ellithorpe, Steven Rosenblatt, Antonio Jimenez, Shigeo Ohta, Gonzalo Ferreira and Garth L. Nicolson. Hydrogenized Water Effects on Protection of Brain Cells from Oxidative Stress and Glutamate Toxicity. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2018; 6(1):9-13. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-6-1-2


Hydrogenized water is known to have protective effects on cells and tissues, mainly through its antioxidant activities. Here we examined the protective effects of a commercial source of hydrogenized water on cultured human brain cells. Hydrogenized water was able to protect brain cells from oxidative stress and glutamate toxicity. At H2 concentrations above 0.01 mM the glutathione levels increased in cultured brain cells. The level of glutathione rose from approximately 500 to approximately 850 μM at the maximum dose of hydrogenized water with an EC50 of approximately 0.030 mM. Hydrogenized water was also able to enhance the signaling pathway for oxidative stress response mediated by Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2 like factor). Treatment of cells with hydrogenized water at concentrations above 0.01 mM H2 induced activation of Nrf2 (EC50 approximately 0.05 mM). Hydrogenized water was also able to protect brain cells against glutamate toxicity. Using a DNA damage response element, (γH2AX, to monitor the damage of glutamate toxicity we found that concentrations of H2 above 0.01 mM protected cells from glutamate damage with an EC50 of approximately 0.05 mM H2. These in vitro results demonstrated that hydrogenized water can protect brain cells against common types of damage from oxidative stress and glutamate toxicity.

hydrogenized water bioassays glutathione oxidative stress Nrf2 glutamate toxicity

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