American Journal of Food and Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2374-1155 ISSN (Online): 2374-1163 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajfn Editor-in-chief: Mihalis Panagiotidis
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2017, 5(3), 99-105
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-5-3-4
Open AccessReview Article

Review of Quality Protein Maize as Food and Feed: In Alleviating Protein Deficiency in Developing Countries

Tekeba Eshetie1,

1Ethiopia Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: July 26, 2017

Cite this paper:
Tekeba Eshetie. Review of Quality Protein Maize as Food and Feed: In Alleviating Protein Deficiency in Developing Countries. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2017; 5(3):99-105. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-5-3-4

Abstract

Maize is the major food and feed source in most parts of the world. In Ethiopia, it ranks second in area coverage after Teff and first in production. But maize alike other cereals, is deficient in certain essential amino acids like lysine and tryptophan. Therefore, this study is initiated to review the pros and cons of other maize variety called Quality Protein Maize as food, feed and other industrial uses and to suggest recommendations based on the findings. For the purpose, a number of national and international research findings were collected and used. The major lessons from this study indicated that, Quality Protein Maize has got a similar yield potential and disease resistance with normal maize and its biological value is about 80% whereas normal maize has got 40-75%. It has also 90% the biological value of cow's milk with a true digestibility level of 60% which is greater than normal maize. The amino acid profile specially lysine and tryptophan is 2-3 fold higher than normal maize. Feeding of Quality Protein Maize to children in a number of countries indicated that the anthropometric measures are higher for the children fed with Quality Protein Maize than normal maize fed groups and also increased the intelligent quotient. Feeding of Quality Protein Maize to pregnant women showed a significant impact upon the health of the babies and mothers. The impact of Quality Protein Maize feeding to old age people reflected in their relief from gastric and other indigestion ailments. Feeding values of Quality Protein Maize to broiler chicks enhanced growth rate and meat quality. When broiler chicks fed with the combination of Quality Protein Maize and sesame seed meal, it can safely replace synthetic amino acids with better economic advantage than feeding with synthetic amino acids. In the case of layers, feeding of Quality Protein Maize improved age at first egg laying, egg production, and egg quality parameters. The major problems associated to the scaling ups of Quality Protein Maize include limited promotion, insufficient demonstration and poor awareness creation on its quality. On top of these, literally there is no premium price for the production of Quality Protein Maize and there is no special incentives for those producers. Therefore, research results should be properly documented and shared with the respective stakeholders, continuous awareness creation, demonstration and extension activities to producers and consumers should be done so as to use the potential in a proper manner. For effective promotion, back ward linkages and contract farming is also important to ensure sustainable supply of seed. It is also equally important to involve private players for seed production and link them with industries and encourage farmers to use yellow quality protein maize variety to increase the beta carotene contents of the diets.

Keywords:
essential amino acids lysine mal-nutrition normal maize quality protein maize tryptophan

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Prasanna, B.M., Vasal, S.K., Kassahun, B. and Singh N.N. (2001). Quality Protein Maize Current Science, Vol. 81, No. 10. Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.
 
[2]  Marcos L.(2005). Combining ability for grain yield of Quality Protein Maize under low soil nitrogen. A dissertation submitted to the school of Agricultural Sciences of University of Zambia in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Master of Science in Agronomy.
 
[3]  TAAS (Trust for Advancement of Agricultural Sciences) (2015). Up scaling Quality Protein Maize for Nutritional Security Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110 012, India.
 
[4]  Sentayehu, A. (2008). Protein, Tryptophan and Lysine contents in Quality Protein Maize, North India. Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 18, No. 2.
 
[5]  Aman, J., Bantte, K., Alamerew, S. and Tolera, B. (2016). Evaluation of Quality Protein Maize hybrids at Jimma, Western-Ethiopia. Journal of Forensic Anthropology 1(1).
 
[6]  Agrawal, P.K. and Gupta, H.S. (2010). Enhancement of protein quality maize using biotechnological options. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology 10: 79-91.
 
[7]  Wubu, T. Z. (2011). Effect of graded level of Quality Protein Maize and normal maize on egg production, egg quality and hatchability of white leghorn hens. MSc Thesis, submitted to the school of graduate studies, Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
 
[8]  Lauderdale, J. (2000). Issues Regarding Targeting and Adoption of Quality Protein Maize (QPM). CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). Mexico D.F., 30p.
 
[9]  Abate, T., Shiferaw, B., Menkir, A., Wegary, D., Kebede, Y., Tesfaye, K., Kassie, M., Bogale, G., Tadesse, B., and Keno, T. (2015). Factors that transformed maize productivity in Ethiopia. Food Security. 2015: 7(5): 965-981.
 
[10]  Onimisi, P.A., Omage, J.J., Dafwng, I.I. and Bawa, G.S. (2009). Replacement value of Normal Maize with Quality Protein Maize in Broiler Diets. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (2): 112-115.
 
[11]  FAO (United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization) (2002). Protein Sources for the Animal Feed Industry. Expert Consultation and workshop Bangkok, 29 April-3 May 2002.
 
[12]  Mpofu, I.D.T., Sibanda, S., Shonihwa, A. and Pixley (2012). The Nutritional value of Quality Protein Maize for Weaner Pigs. J. Pet.Environ. Biotechnol, 3 (5).
 
[13]  Bjamason, M. Vasal, SK. (1992). Breeding of Quality Protein Maize. Plant breeding review 9: 181-216.
 
[14]  Hugo, C. and Mike, L. (2001). Quality Protein Maize: Improved Nutrition and Livelihoods for the poor. In: Sustainable Maize Production Systems for Nepal. Proceedings of Maize Symposium, Held December 3-5, 2001, Kathmandu, Nepal.
 
[15]  Nuss, E.T. and Tanumihardjo, S.A. (2011). Quality Protein Maize for Africa: Closing the protein Inadequacy Gap in Vulnerable Populations. American Society for Nutrition. Adv.Nutr.2:217-224.
 
[16]  Gupta, H.S., Agrawal, P.K., Mahajan, V., Bisht, G.S., Kumar, A., Verma, P., Srivastava, A., Saha, S., Babu, R., Pant, M.C. and Mani, V.P. (2009). Quality Protein Mazie for nutritional security: rapid development of short duration hybrids through molecular marker assisted breeding. Current Science, Vol. 96, No. 2.
 
[17]  Vasal, S.K. (2000). Quality Protein Maize: overcoming the hurdles. Journal of crop production 6: 193-227.
 
[18]  Jaliya, M.M., Falaki, A.M., Mahmud, M. & Sani, Y.A. (2008). Effect of sowing date and NPK fertilizer rate on yield and yield components of Quality Protein Maize. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological science. Vol. 3, No. 2.
 
[19]  Bello, O.B., Ganiyu, O.T., Wahab, M.K.A., Azeez, M. A., Abdulmaliq, S.Y., Ige, S.A., Mahmood, J., Oluleye, F., and Afolabi, M.S. (2012). Yield and disease reactions of Quality Protein Maize Varieties in the Southern Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecology of Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2(5): 203-209.
 
[20]  Abdurrahman, B.I. (2013). Yield stability and mega environment analysis based on the performance of Quality Protein Maize in Sub-Saharan Africa. Dissertation submitted to Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
 
[21]  Tadesse, A. and Hae koo Kim (2015). Yield related traits and yield of Quality Protein maize affected by nitrogen levels to achieve maximum yield in the central rift valley of Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare Vol. 5 (15).
 
[22]  Krivannek, A.F., Hugo De Groote, Gunaratna, N.S., Diallo, A.O. and Friesen, D. (2007). Breeding and disseminating Quality Protein Maize (QPM) for Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (4), pp. 312-324.
 
[23]  Bressani, R (1992). Nutritional value of high lysine maize in humans. In Mertz E.T. (ed.) Quality Protein Maize. American Association of Cereal Chemists.
 
[24]  NRC (National Research Council) (1988). Quality Protein Maize. National Academy Press. Washington D.C.
 
[25]  Abiose, S.H., Ikujenlola, A.V., and Abioderin, F.I. (2015). Nutritional quality Assessment of Complementary Foods Produced from Fermented and Malted Quality Protein Maize Fortified with Soybean Flour. Pol. J. Food. Nutr. Sci. Vol.65, No.1, pp. 49-56.
 
[26]  Mosisa, W., Marianne, B., Dnnis, F., Gunda, S.A.M., Alpha, O.D., Bindiganivile, V. & Walter, J.H. (2007). Protein quantity and quality, and grain yield of Quality Protein Maize and normal endosperm Maize under different levels of Nitrogen. African crop Science Conference Proceedings Vol. 8 pp.1905-1909.
 
[27]  Tessema, M., Gunaratna, N.S., Donato, K., Cohen, J.L., McConnel, M., Belayneh, D., Brouwer, I.D., Belachew, T. and Hugo De Groote (2016). Translating the impact of Quality Protein Maize into improved nutritional status for Ethiopian children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Nutrition vol. 2(54).
 
[28]  Panda, A.K., Raju, M.V.L.N., Rama Rao, S.V., Lavanya, G., Pradeep Kumar Reddy, E. and Shyam Sunder, G. (2010). Replacement of normal maize with Quality Protein Maize on performance, immune response and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Asia Australian Journal of Animal Sciences 23: 1626-1631.
 
[29]  Panda, A.K., Prakash, B., Rama, S.V., RAO, Raju, M.V.L.N., and Shyam Sunder, G. (2013). Utilization of high Quality Protein Maize in poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 69.
 
[30]  Tekeba E. Moudgal R. and Alemu Y. (2007). Compatibility of Quality Protein Maize and Sesame Seed Meal as a Substitute for Synthetic Amino Acids in Broiler Ration. The Icfai Journal of Life Sciences, India 1(2): 16-30.
 
[31]  Osei, S. A., Dei, H.K., and Tuah, A. K. (1999). Evaluation of Quality Protein Maize as a feed ingredient for layer pullet. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 8: 181-189.
 
[32]  Tiwari, M.R., Chapagain, B.P., Shah, M.K. and Shrestha, Y.K. (2013). Evaluation of Quality Protein Maize for Growth performance of Crossbred Piglets in Western Hills of Nepal. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Agriculture and Veterinary. Volume 13 (6).
 
[33]  PANDA, A.K., RAJU, M.V.L.N., RAMARAO, S.V., LAVANYA, G., PRADEEP KUMARREDDY,E. and SHYA.1WSUNDER, G. (2011). Nutritional evaluation and utilisation of Quality Protein Maize, Nityashree hybrid maize and normal maize in broiler chicken. British Poultry Science 52: 632-638.
 
[34]  Ortega, E.I.E., Villegas, E. and Vasal, S.K. (1986). A comparative study of protein changes in normal and Quality Protein Maize during tortilla making. Cereal Chemistry 63 (5): 446-451.
 
[35]  Osei, S.A., Atuahene, C.C., Okai, D.B., Donkoh & Tuah, A.K. (1998). The nutritive value of Quality Protein Maize in the diets of broiler chickens. Ghana Jnl Agric. Sci. 31, 1-5.
 
[36]  UNECA (United Nation Economic Commission for Africa), (2014). The cost of hunger in Africa: Social and economic impact of child under nutrition in Egypt, Ethiopia, Swaziland and Uganda. World Food program, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
 
[37]  CSA (Central Statistical Agency) (2014). Agricultural Sample Survey: report on areas and production of major crops. Statistical Bulletin, volume 1: Addis Ababa.
 
[38]  National Planning Commission (2015). The Second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II) (2015/16-2019/20). Addis Ababa: The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
 
[39]  MoANR (Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources) (2016). Nutrition sensitive Agriculture Draft Strategic Plan Addis Ababa: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2016
 
[40]  CSA (Central Statistical Agency) and ICF International (2012). Ethiopia Demographic and health survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Calverton, Maryland, USA.
 
[41]  Mamatha, H., Meena, M. K. and Pushpa Chethan Kumar (2017). Quality Protein Maize as Balanced Nutrition for Human Diets. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research, Vol. 6 (2).
 
[42]  Chopra, N., Bhargawa, A. and Kumar, A. (2011). Effect of feeding quality protein maize on growth of young children. Food Science Research journal; Volume 2 issue 2. pp: 173-178.
 
[43]  Zhai, Shao-Wei. (2002). Nutritional evaluation and utilization of quality protein maize in laying hen feed. MSc Thesis, Shaanxi 712100, P.R. China.
 
[44]  Joice, V., San Andres, Neil Alvin, A., Soriano, Alona, T., Badua and Ernesto A. Martin (2011). Quality Protein Maize in Least-cost diet for laying hens. Department of Animal Science, Central Luzon State University, Muzon, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
 
[45]  Nyanamba, T., De Groote, H. and Wahome, R. (2003). Quality Protein Maize for the feed industry in Kenya. Poster paper presented at the international Agricultural economics Associations, Durban, South Africa, August, 2003.
 
[46]  De-Quan, S., Shi-Huang, Z. (1994). Maize production and QPM breeding program in China. International symposium on QPM. December 1-3 Sete Lagoas, MG Brazil, pp 238-239.
 
[47]  Eshetie, T. Moges, F. and Zeleke, G. (2011). Effect of Quality Protein Maize on growth and body weight gain performance of RIR breed of chickens. The IUP Journal of Life Sciences 4: 46-53.