American Journal of Food and Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2374-1155 ISSN (Online): 2374-1163 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mihalis Panagiotidis
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2017, 5(1), 41-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-5-1-5
Open AccessArticle

An Applied Research Method on Assembling Milk Spoilage Bacteria from Different Milk Samples

Avra Pratim Chowdhury1, , Anuva Chowdhury2, Bhriganka Bharadwaj3 and Mohammad Abul Manchur1

1Department of Microbiology, University of Chittagong

2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering Technology

3Department of Microbiology, Assam down Town University

Pub. Date: March 01, 2017

Cite this paper:
Avra Pratim Chowdhury, Anuva Chowdhury, Bhriganka Bharadwaj and Mohammad Abul Manchur. An Applied Research Method on Assembling Milk Spoilage Bacteria from Different Milk Samples. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2017; 5(1):41-50. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-5-1-5


Worldwide, Pasteurized Milk and Milk products are popular food to consumers. A lot of works have been concerned out on Pasteurized and UHT milk during the last few years in different concerns of the world. There are a lot of information in the world related to characters of the different microorganisms involved, although Pasteurized milk is one of the most favorite and liking food item to the young generation in the country. Therefore Pasteurized milk and milk products storage for long time should always be avoided. As most of the bacteria are able to produce toxins, it is necessary to monitor strictly Pasteurized milk and milk products and then certify them for human consumption. It is the author’s (Chowdhury AP description that pasteurization is simply a quick fix that allows large cartels to profit from the sales of milk. So also for its demand in the market many companies and renown dairy farms have been prepared it without proper maintaining its nutritional quality, hygienic condition. To analyze the hygienic condition in Pasteurized milk, research works prepared by well known and established Research laboratories in the Chittagong, Bangladesh.

alkaline phosphatase somatic cell count coli form count microscopic factor

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Lorenzen and Martin (2010) studied evaluation of alkaline phosphatase detection in dairy products using a modified rapid chemiluminescent method and official methods. Food Microbiology 24: 165-174.
[2]  Desbourdes and Nicolas (2008) discussed about Phosphatase activity in cheese for Milk and Milk Products. J. Food Sci. 76(4): 247-261.
[3]  Wilinska, A. and Bryjak, J. 2007 discussed thatAlkaline Phosphatase in cow and non-cow milk and cheese Determination of enzyme activity as an indicator for the completeness of the pasteurization process in International Dairy Journal, 17, pp. 579-586.
[4]  Fox and Kelly (2006) showed in International Dairy Journal that the use of alternative analytical methods is acceptable when the alkaline phosphatase determination methods are validated against the reference method in accordance with internationally accepted protocols. J. Dairy Sci. 80:3019-3265.
[5]  Vamvakaki and Zoidou (2006) represented about Small Ruminant Research, that Determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. Microbiology Reviews 12: 253-272.
[6]  Mc Martin et al. (2006) proved important pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli, Salmonella enteritidisin pasteurized milk. J. Dairy Sci. 42: 1917-1922.
[7]  Godden et al. (2006). Showed a recent field trial that when colostrums, heat-treated at 140°F for 60 minutes, was fed to calves. J. Dairy Sci. 60: 119-132.
[8]  Hagman et al. (2006) studied about this benefit is thought to be due to the fact that there were significantly fewer bacteria present in the heat treated colostrums to interfere with antibody absorption across the gut. J. Dairy Sci. 15: 1012-1023.
[9]  Stable et al. (2004) was taken the lead in researching UHT milk and discussed how UHT processing and subsequent storage causes several changes shelf life of UHT milk. J. Dairy Sci. 56: 1152-1162.
[10]  Green and Godden et al. (2003) determined in most situations, heat treating colostrums at 140°F (60°C) for 60 minutes in a commercial batch pasteurizer should be sufficient to maintain IgG concentrations while eliminating. J. Dairy Sci. 35: 605-632.
[11]  Poulsen et al. (2002) denoted that bacterial contamination of pasteurized milk is a concern because pathogenic bacteria can act directly to cause diseases such as septicemia. J. Dairy Sci. 20: 108-125.
[12]  Ardo, Y. and Lindblad, O. 1999 proved that it is possible to discriminate native ALP, which is less heat stable from ALP produced by microorganisms by testing cheese after re-pasteurization at 62.8°C by 30 min. The positive result is caused by micro flora in Int. Dairy J., 9, pp. 547-552.
[13]  Steele and Walz (1997) showed that Pasteurized milk can also represent one of the earliest potential exposures of dairy calves to infectious agents, including Mycoplasma sp., Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp. J. Dairy Sci. 40: 1434-1442.
[14]  Sneath et al. (1986) studied after solidification of the medium, the plated were incubated (Binder Incubator) at inverted position at 37±1°C for 24 to 72 hours.
[15]  Collon and Lyne (1984) studied about clear transparent zone around the colonies indicated the production of caseinase enzyme by the bacteria that could hydrolyze casein.
[16]  Tresner and Danga (1958) studied property of hydrogen sulphide had been utilized in the demonstration of its production in the peptone iron agar medium (ISP-VI) BY microbes.
[17]  Buchanan and Gibbons, (1974) Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology’-8th Ed.
[18]  Claus (1995) subjected to the enzyme catalase is capable of decomposing hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen.
[19]  De-Boer and Heuvelink, (2000) isolated of E. coli O157 from UHT milk.
[20]  Escherich et al., in 1885 described Escherichia coli.
[21]  Foster et al. (1958), the microbial colonies were isolated by serial dilution plate procedure.
[22]  Lye YL, Afsah-Hejri L, Chang WS, Loo YY, Puspanadan S, Kuan CH, et al. Risk of Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission linked to the consumption of raw milk. Int Food Res J 2013; 20(2):1001.
[23]  Levisonet al. (2016) reported that Pathogen-specific the incidence rate of infection attributed to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillusspp., andE. Coli .J. Dairy Sci. 80:3219-3226.
[24]  Arendt, E. K., Ryan, L.and Dal Bello, F. 2008, Food Microbiology 24: 165-074.
[25]  Katina, K. Heinio, R. L. Autio, and K., Poutanen, K. 2006. LWT-Food Science and Technology 39: 1189-1202.
[26]  Uauy, R. 2005. Defining and addressing the nutritional needs of populations. Public Health Nutrition: 6(6A), 773-780. Vamvakaki. And Zoidou, E. 2006 studied in Small Ruminant Research, 65, pp. 237-241, that Determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. Part 1: Fluorimetric method for milk and milk based drinks. Analytical report based on ISO 11816-1:2006 Milk and milk products.
[27]  Jafor, A. 1998. Assesment of baterological quality of fast foods and soft drinks in relation to safety and hygiene. M.Sc. Thesis. Dept. of Microbiology, University of Dhaka. Dhaka.
[28]  Ali AA, Abdelgadir SW. Incidence of Escherichia coli in raw cow's milk in Khartoum state. Br J Dairy Sci 2011; 2(1):23.
[29]  Batdorj, B., Dalgalarrondo, M., Choiset, Y., Pedroche, J., Metro, F., Prevost, H., Chobert, J.M. and Haertle, T. 2006. Purification and Characterization of two bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mongolian cheese. J. Appl. Microbiol. 101(4): 837-848.
[30]  Begum, M. 1985. Bacteriological analysis of different foods to determine the fitness for human consumption. J Pakistan Med Assoc (JPMA). 35.79-82.
[31]  Bligh, E.G. and Dyer, W.J. 1959 A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 37: 911-917. Buckenhusks, H.J. 1993. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 12: 253-272.
[32]  Weimer, B., Seefeldt. K. and Dias, B. 1999. Sulfur metabolism in bacteria associated with cheese. J. Food Sci. 76(4): 247-261.
[33]  Granum, P.E. 2005 “Bacillus cereus” Foodborne Pathogens: Microbiology and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. Hobbs, B.C. Smith, M.E, Oakley, C.L, Warrack, G.H. Cruickshank, J.C 1953. Clostridiumwelchii food poisonging, J Hyg (London), 51(1), 75-101.
[34]  Ibrahim MA, Emeash HH, Ghoneim NH, Abdel-Halim MA. Seroepidemiological studies on poultry Salmonellosis and its public health importance. J World's Poult Res 2013;3(1):18e23.
[35]  Wiseman, G. 2009. “Real Time PCR: Application to Food Authenticity and Legislation”. Real-Time PCR: Current Technology and Applications. Caister Academic Press.
[36]  Gwida MM, EL-Gohary FA. Zoonotic bacterial pathogens isolated from raw milk with special reference to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in Dakahlia. Governorate, Egypt 2013;2(4):705.
[37]  Y Hu, J Shallop, Y Liu, A CoatesInfection and Immunity, St George’s University of London, UKAntimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2015, 4(Suppl 1):I5
[38]  Zhang, X., Kong, J. and Qu, Y. 2006. Isolation adn Characterization of a Lactobacillus fermentum temperate bacteriophage from Chinese yogurt and cheese. J. Appl. Microbiol. 101 (4): 857-863.
[39]  L Grayson, N Macesic, C Xuereb, Colour Grid Collaboration1Hand Hygiene Australia; 2Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne,Australia; 3Infectious Diseases, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia; Melbourne, Australia Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2015, 4(Suppl 1): I9 Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2015, Volume 4 Page 3 of 117.
[40]  Corsetti, A. and Settanni, L. 2007. Food Research International 40: 539-558.
[41]  Caplice, E. and Fitzgerald, G.F. 1999: International Journal of Food Microbilogy 50: 131-149.
[42]  Carniel, E, Hinnebusch, B. J. (editor) 2012. Yersinia sp., Caister Academic Press. Cathcart, W.H. 1951. Banking and bakery products, chap. 26: In M.B. Jacobs (ed), The chemistry and technology of food and food products. 2nd ed. Interscience publishers (Division of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) New York.
[43]  Kim, Y, Haung, W. Zhu, H. and Rayas Duarte, P. 2009 Food Chemistry 114:685-692.