American Journal of Food and Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2374-1155 ISSN (Online): 2374-1163 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mihalis Panagiotidis
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2016, 4(3), 68-73
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-4-3-2
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Production Method on the Dietary Fibre Composition of Akamu- A Nigerian Fermented Maize Product

Patience C. Obinna-Echem1, 2, and Thomas Adjei-Duodu1

1School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Environment, Plymouth University, Plymouth, United Kingdom

2Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: May 17, 2016

Cite this paper:
Patience C. Obinna-Echem and Thomas Adjei-Duodu. Effect of Production Method on the Dietary Fibre Composition of Akamu- A Nigerian Fermented Maize Product. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2016; 4(3):68-73. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-4-3-2


This study utilized the Integrated total dietary fibre assay in evaluating the total dietary fibre (TDF) components: insoluble dietary fibre (IDF), soluble dietary fibre precipitates (SDFP) and soluble dietary fibre soluble (SDFS), of porridges from ground maize slurries fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum strain and porridges from akamu sample. The traditional process was modified by skipping the soaking, wet milling and wet sieving stages to fermenting ground whole maize slurries with pure culture of L. plantarum strain. The aim was to investigate the effect of the production method on the dietary fibre composition of the new in comparison to akamu sample. The samples had similar physical and microbiological characteristics: pH of 3.43 – 3.95, titratable acidity of 1.05 – 1.59% and lactic acid bacteria count of 8.56 CFU mL-1. The most available sugar from the SDFS was glucose (43 - 54 mg mL-1 for 24 h L. plantarum fermentation and the akamu sample, respectively). The akamu sample had the lowest IDF and the highest SDF (50.80 mg g-1) with particular reference to its SDFS (35.40 mg g-1) content. This study has brought to knowledge the dietary fibre component of a Nigerian fermented maize food.

Lactobacillus plantarum Maize porridge fermentation akamu insoluble dietary fibre soluble dietary fibre precipitates soluble dietary fibre soluble

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Hollmann, J., Themeier, H., Neese, U., and Lindhauer, M. G., “Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method,” Food Chemistry, 140, 586-589, 2013.
[2]  Dhingra, D., Michael, M., Rajput, H., and Patil, R. T., “Dietary fibre in foods: a review,” Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49, 255-266, 2012.
[3]  Yangilar, F., “The Application of Dietary Fibre in Food Industry: Structural Features, Effects on Health and Definition, Obtaining and Analysis of Dietary Fibre: A Review,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 1, 13-23, 2013.
[4]  Vitaglione, P., Napolitano, A., and Fogliano, V., “Cereal dietary fibre: a natural functional ingredient to deliver phenolic compounds into the gut,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, 19, 451-463, 2008.
[5]  Ragaee, S., Guzar, I., Dhull, N., and Seetharaman, K., “Effects of fiber addition on antioxidant capacity and nutritional quality of wheat bread,” LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44, 2147-2153, 2011.
[6]  McCleary, B. V., De Veries, J. W., Rade, J. I., Cohen, G., Prosky, L., Mugford D. C., Champ, M., and Okunma, K., “Collaborative Study Report: Determination of insoluble, soluble and total dietary fibre (Codex definition) by an enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography, AACC International, Inc 2011.
[7]  Kristensen, M., Jensen, M. G., Riboldi, G., Petronio, M., Bügel, S., Toubro, S., Tetens, T., and Astrup, A., “Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults,” Appetite, 54, 163-169, 2010.
[8]  Rasoamanana, R., Even, P. C., Darcel, N., Tomé, D., and Fromentin, G., “Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice,” Physiology & Behavior, 110-111, 13-19, 2013.
[9]  Brown, L., Rosner, B., Willett, W. W., and Sacks, F. M., “Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 30-42, 1999.
[10]  Chandalia, M., Garg, A., Lutjohann, D., von Bergmann, K., Grundy, S. M., and Brinkley, L. J., “Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 1392-1398, 2000.
[11]  Roberts, C. L., Keita, Å. V., Parsons, B. N., Prorok-Hamon, M., Knight, P., Winstanley, C., O′Kennedy, N., Söderholm, J. D., Rhodes, J. M., and Campbell, B. J.., “Soluble plantain fibre blocks adhesion and M-cell translocation of intestinal pathogens,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 24, 97-103, 2013.
[12]  Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., Blecker, C., and Attia, H., “Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review,” Food Chemistry, 124, 411-421, 2011.
[13]  Brennan C. S., and Cleary, L. J., “The potential use of cereal (1→3,1→4)-β-d-glucans as functional food ingredients,” Journal of Cereal Science, 42, 1-13, 2005.
[14]  Sullivan, P., Arendt, E., and Gallagher, E., “The increasing use of barley and barley by-products in the production of healthier baked goods,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, 29, 124-134, 2013.
[15]  Andersson, A. A. M., Andersson, R., Piironen, V., Lampi, A.-M., Nyström, L., Boros, D. , Fraś, A., Gebruers, K., Courtin, C. M., Delcour, J. A., Rakszegi, M., Bedo, Z., Ward, J. L., Shewry, P. R. and Åman, P., “Contents of dietary fibre components and their relation to associated bioactive components in whole grain wheat samples from the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen,” Food Chemistry, vol. 136, pp. 1243-1248, 2013.
[16]  Shahidi, F., and Chandrasekara, A., “Millet grain phenolics and their role in disease risk reduction and health promotion: A review,” Journal of Functional Foods, 5, 570-581, 2013.
[17]  Guo, W., and Beta, T., “Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant potential of insoluble and soluble dietary fibre extracts derived from select whole-grain cereals,” Food Research International, 51, 518-525, 2013.
[18]  Achi, O. K. The potential of upgrading traditional fermented foods through biotechnology. African Journal of Biotechnology , 4 (5):375-380, 2005.
[19]  Teniola, O. D. and Odunfa, S. A. The effects of processing methods on the levels of lysine, methionine and the general acceptability of Ogi processed using starter cultures. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 63: 1-9, 2001.
[20]  Inyang, C. U. and Idoko, C. A. Assessment of the quality of ogi made from malted millet. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5: 2334-2337, 2006.
[21]  Osungbaro, T. O. Effect of fermentation period on amylose content and textural characteristics of “Ogi” (a fermented maize porridge). Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 70, 22-25, 1990.
[22]  Umoh, V. and fields, M. J. Fermentation of corn for Nigerian Agidi. Journal of Food Science, 46, 903-905, 1981.
[23]  Obinna-Echem, P. C., Beal, J., and Kuri, V., “Effect of processing method on the mineral content of Nigerian fermented maize infant complementary food – Akamu,” LWT - Food Science and Technology, 61, 145-151, 2015.
[24]  Obinna-Echem, P. C., Beal, J., and Kuri, V., “Evaluation of the microbial community, acidity and proximate composition of akamu, a fermented maize food,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 331-340, 2014.
[25]  Megazyme, Integrated total dietary fibre assay procedure including resistant starch and non-digestible oligosaccharides K-INTDF 06/12, ed. Bray, Co. Wicklow, Ireland: Megazyme International, 2012.
[26]  AOAC, Official methods of analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, 18 ed. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA: AOAC International, 2005.
[27]  Annan, N. T., Poll, L., Sefa-Dedeh, S., Plahar, W. A., and Jakobsen, M., “Volatile compounds produced by Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida krusei in single starter culture fermentations of Ghanaian maize dough,” Journal of Applied Microbiology 94, 462-474, 2003.
[28]  Miles, A. A. and Misra, S. S., “The estimation of the bactericidal power of the blood.,” Journal of Hygiene, 38, 732-49, 1938.
[29]  AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis, 16 ed. Arlington, USA: Association of Analytical Chemists, 2.,1995.
[30]  Nguyen, T. T. T., Loiseau, G., Icard-Vernière, C., Rochette, I., Trèche, S. and Guyot, J.-P. Effect of fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria, in process combinations, on characteristics of rice/soybean slurries: A new method for preparing high energy density complementary foods for young children. Food Chemistry, 100, 623-631, 2007.
[31]  Teniola, O. D. and Odunfa, S. A., Microbial assessment and quality evaluation of Ogi during spoilage. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 18, 731-737, 2002.
[32]  Mugula, J. K., Narvhus, J. A. & Sørhaug, T., Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of Togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 83, 307-318, 2003.
[33]  Brunt, K., and Sanders, P., “Improvement of the AOAC 2009.01 total dietary fibre method for bread and other high starch containing matrices,” Food Chemistry, 140, 574-580, 2013.
[34]  Bach Knudsen, K. E., “The nutritional significance of “dietary fibre” analysis,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, 90, 3-20, 2001.
[35]  Huang, Z., Ye, R., Chen, J., and Xu, F., “An improved method for rapid quantitative analysis of the insoluble dietary fiber in common cereals and some sorts of beans,” Journal of Cereal Science, 57, 270-274, 2013.
[36]  Dziedzic, K., Górecka, D., Kucharska, M., and Przybylska, B., “Influence of technological process during buckwheat groats production on dietary fibre content and sorption of bile acids,” Food Research International, vol. 47, pp. 279-283, 2012.
[37]  Kutoš, T., Golob, T., Kač, M., and Plestenjak, A., “Dietary fibre content of dry and processed beans,” Food Chemistry, 80, 231-235, 2003.