American Journal of Food and Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2374-1155 ISSN (Online): 2374-1163 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mihalis Panagiotidis
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2015, 3(5), 125-130
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-3-5-3
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on the Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Properties of Broccoli and Cauliflower

Abd Allah Mansour1, Nahed M.Elshimy1, Laila A. Shekib1 and Magda S. Sharara1,

1Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria Egypt

Pub. Date: January 03, 2016

Cite this paper:
Abd Allah Mansour, Nahed M.Elshimy, Laila A. Shekib and Magda S. Sharara. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on the Chemical Composition and Organoleptic Properties of Broccoli and Cauliflower. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2015; 3(5):125-130. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-3-5-3


This study was carried out to investigate the effect of three domestic processing methods (blanching in boiled water, steaming and microwaving) on chemical composition, minerals, color and organoleptic properties of broccoli (Brassica oleacea var italica) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). The results of proximate chemical composition showed that broccoli had a lower moisture and higher dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and ash compared with cauliflower, while cauliflower had higher content of carbohydrate than broccoli. Blanching in boiled water, steaming and microwaving methods caused a significant increasing in moisture content and a significant decreasing in crude protein, crude fat, and ash content of both broccoli and cauliflower (on dry weight basis), meanwhile no significant effect was observed in carbohydrate content of broccoli and cauliflower after processing except that of steamed cauliflower it had lower content of carbohydrate than broccoli. However, the change in crude fiber content was not significant due to processing when calculated on dry weight bass. It was found that, fresh cauliflower had a higher content of Fe and Ca than fresh broccoli while the opposite was observed in case of Zn, Mg, K and Na content (on dry weight basis). Different processing methods resulted in significant reduction in the mineral contents in both broccoli and cauliflower comparing with the fresh ones. Broccoli tends to be from green to blue while cauliflower tends to be yellow in color. Fresh broccoli color was higher in purity comparing to the processed ones. The lowest purity value was noticed for microwaved broccoli. Steamed cauliflower color had the highest L (lightness) value and lowest one was observed for microwaved samples. Sensory evaluation showed that both raw and processed cauliflower and broccoli were acceptable by panelists.

broccoli cauliflower chemical composition minerals organoleptic properties

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Robinson, D. S. (1990). Food Biochemistry and Nutritional Value. Longman Scientific and Technical Publisher, NewYork. .
[2]  Zhang, D. and Hamauzu, Y. (2004). Phenolics, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of broccoli and their changes during conventional and microwave cooking. Food Chemistry, 88: 503-509.
[3]  Hanif, R., Iqbal, Z., Iqbal, M., Hanif, S. and Rasheed, M. (2006). Use of vegetables as nutritional food: role in human health. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 1, 18-22.
[4]  Farnham, M.W.; Grusak, M.A. and Wang, M. (2000). Calcium and magnesium concentration of inbred and hybrid broccoli heads. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science., 125(3): 344-349.
[5]  Moreno, D.A, Carvajal, M, López-Berenguer, C, García-Viguera, C. (2006). Chemical and biological characterisation of nutraceutical compounds of broccoli., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical analysis, 41, 1508-1522.
[6]  Ahmed, F.A and Ali, R.F.M.. (2013). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and processed white cauliflower. BioMed Research International, 20 Article ID 367819, 9 pages.
[7]  Canet, W., Alvarez M.D., Luna P., Fernández C., and Tortosa M.E., (2005). Blanching effects on chemistry, quality and structure of green beans (cv. Moncayo). European. Food Research Technology, 220, 421-430.
[8]  Kramer, A. and Twigg, B.A. (1970) Quality Control for The Food ndustry 3th. AVI Publishing Co. Westport Conn. London. England.
[9]  AOAC. (2003). “Official Methods of Analysis” 13th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington.
[10]  Steel, R.G. and Torrie, J.H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2 nd ed., Mc grawhill co., Inc. USA.
[11]  Mansour,A.A., Shekib,L.A., El Shimy, N.M and Sharara,M.S. (2015). Comparative Study between the Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Broccoli and Cauliflower and the Effect of Domestic Processing on Them.The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge., 3:246-254.
[12]  Rickman, J.C., Barrett, D.M. and Bruhn, C.M. (2007). Review nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen and canned fruits and vegetables. Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87, 930-944.
[13]  Yuan, G.F., Sun, B., Yuan, J. and Wang, Q.M. (2009). Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science B, 10, 580-588.
[14]  USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18 (2002).
[15]  Linder, M.C.(1991). Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism: With Clinical Applications. 2nd ed. Elsevier. New York.
[16]  Johnston, C.C.J., Miller, J.Z., Slemenda, C.W., Reister, T.K., Hui, S., Christian, J.C. and Peacock, M. (1992). Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 82-87.
[17]  Acikgoz, F.E. (2011) Influence of different sowing times on mineral composition and vitamin c of some broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cultivars. Scientific Research and Essays, 6, 760-765.
[18]  Martins, R.C. and Silva, C.L.M. (2002). Modelling colour and chlorophyll losses of frozen green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.). International Journal Refrigeration, 25: 966-974.
[19]  Goncalves, E.M., Abreu, M., Brandao, T.R.S. and Silva, C.L.M. (2011). Degradation kinetics of Colour, vitamin C and drip loss in frozen broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during storage at isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. International Journal of Refrigeration, 34, 2136-2144.
[20]  Pellegrini, N., Chiavaro, E., Gardana, C., Mazzeo, T., Contino, D., Gallo, M., Riso, P., Fogliano, V. and Porrini, M. (2010). Effect of different cooking methods on colour, phytochemical concentration, and antioxidant capacity of raw and frozen Brassica vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 4310-4321.
[21]  Greve, L.C., Shackel, K.A., Ahmadi, H., McArdle, R.N., Gohlke, J.M. and Labavitch, J.M. (1994). Impact of heating on carrot firmness: contribution of cellular Turgor. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42, 2896-2899.
[22]  Heaton, J.W. and Marangoni, A.G. (1996). Chlorophyll degradation in processed foods and senescent plant tissues. Trends Food Science Technology, 7, 8-15.
[23]  Goncalves, E.M., Pinheiro, J., Alegria, C., Abreu, M., Brandao, T.R.S. and Silva, C.L.M. (2009). Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57. 5370-5375.
[24]  Renumarn, P., Srilaong, V., Uthairatanakij, A., Kanlayanarat, S. and Jitareerat, P. (2010). Effect of hot water treatments on survival of E. coli and Salmonella spp. and physical properties in fresh-cut broccoli florets. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, 3, 516-525.