American Journal of Food and Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2374-1155 ISSN (Online): 2374-1163 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mihalis Panagiotidis
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2014, 2(5), 92-94
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-2-5-3
Open AccessArticle

Lead Concentrations in Raw Cows' Milk from Fars Province of Iran

Mohammad Nejatolahi1, Farzad Mehrjo2, , Ali Sheykhi1 and Meghdad Bineshpor3

1Department of Environmental Science and Natural Resource, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

2MSc. Student, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3MSc. Student, Islamic Azad UniversityScience and Research, Ahvaz, Iran

Pub. Date: November 12, 2014

Cite this paper:
Mohammad Nejatolahi, Farzad Mehrjo, Ali Sheykhi and Meghdad Bineshpor. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cows' Milk from Fars Province of Iran. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2014; 2(5):92-94. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-2-5-3


In February 2012, 96 cow milk samples were collected from different cities of Fars province and investigated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean recovery of the analytical method at 10, 20, and 40 ng/ml was 85 ± 5%. Additionally, the mean level of lead content obtained from 96 samples was 10.26 ng/ml, with a range from 1.3 to 23.2 ng/ml, and a standard deviation of 4.31. Moreover, the lead concentration in 5% of the milk samples was higher than the newly established Codex standard. It is worthwhile to mention that significantly higher Pb levels were witnessed in animals aged older than 3 years (p < 0.01). In future studies, a greater number of milk samples added to grass samples from different animals in various regions of Fars should be analyzed to confirm the absence of heavy metals and toxicological risks.

heavy metals lead milk fars province atomic absorption spectroscopy

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ataro, A., McCrindle, R.I., Botha B.M., McCrindle C.M.E., Ndibewu P.P, Quantification of trace elements in raw cow’s milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),Food Chemistry, 2008, 243-248.
[2]  Maas,S., Lucot, E., Gimbert, F., Crin,i N., Badot, P.M, Trace metals in raw cows’ milk and assessment of transfer to Comté cheese, Food Chemistry, 2011, 7-12.
[3]  Pacyna, J.M., Winchester, J.W, Contamination of the global environment as observed in the Arctic, Palaeogeography, 1999, 149-157.
[4]  Sanchez de la Campa, A.M., de la Rosa J.D., Sanchez-Rodas, D., Oliveira, V., Alastuey, A., Querol, X, Arsenic speciation study of PM 2.5 in an urban area near a copper smelter, Atmospheric Environment, 2008, 6487-6495.
[5]  Patra, R.C., Swarup, D., Sharma, M.C., Naresh, R, Changes in plasma hormones profile and liver function in cows naturally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial areas. Journal of Veterinary Medicine A, 2007, 511-517.
[6]  Patra, R.C., Swarup,D., Kumar, P., Nandi, D., Naresh, R., Ali, S.L, Milk trace elements in lactating cows environmentally exposed to higher level of lead and cadmium around different industrial units, The Science of the Total Environment, 2008,36-43.
[7]  Swarup, D., Patra, R.C., Naresh, R., Kumar, P., Shekhar, P, Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk, The Science of the Total Environment, 2005, 106-110.
[8]  Ikeda, M., Zhang, Z.W, Shimbo, S., Watanabe, T., Nakatsuka, H., Moon, C.S,Urban population exposure to lead and cadmium in east and south-east Asia, The Science of the Total Environment, 2000, 373-384.
[9]  Satarug, S., Baker, J.R., Urbenjapol, S., Haswell-Elkins, M., Reilly, P.E., Williams, D.J.A, Global perspective on cadmium pollution and toxicity in no occupationally exposed population, Toxicology Letters, 2003, 65-83.
[10]  Bilandzic, N., Dokic M, Sedak M, Solomun B, Varenina I, Knezevic Z, Benic M. Trace element levels in raw milk from northern and southern regions of Croatia. Food Chemistry. 2011; 127: 63-66.
[11]  Tripathi, R.M., Raghunath, R., Sastry V.N., Krishnamoorthy T.M, Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products, The Science of the Total Environment, 1999, 229-235.
[12]  Salma, I., Maenhaut, W., Dubtsov, S., Papp, E.Z., Zaray, G, Impact of phase out of leaded gasoline on the air quality in Budapest, Microchemical Journal, 2000, 127-133.
[13]  Ebrahim, R, Lead and cadmium concentrations in goat, cow, sheep, and buffalo milks from different regions of Iran, Food Chemistry, 2013, 389-391.
[14]  Codex Alimentarius Commission, (2003),Report of the 35th session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants, Arusha, Tanzania.
[15]  Tajkarimi, M., Faghih, M.A., Poursoltani, H., Nejad, A.S., Motallebi, A.A., Mahdavi, H,Lead residue levels in raw milk from different regions of Iran, Food Control, 2008, 495-498.
[16]  Krelowska-Kulas, M., Kedzior, W., Popek, C, Content of some metals in Goat`s milk from southern Poland. Nahrung-Food, 2008, 317-319.
[17]  Licata,P., Trombetta, D., Cristani, M., Giofre, F., Martino, D., Calo, M, Levels of toxic and essential metals in samples of bovine milk from various dairy farms in Calabria, Italy, Environment International., 2004, 1-6.
[18]  Caggiano,R., Sabia, S., D’Emilioz, M., Macchiato,M., Anastasio,A., Ragosta, M, Metal levels in fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues sampled in ovine farms of Southern Italy, Environmental Research, 2005, 48-57.
[19]  Martino, F.A.R., Sanchez, M.L.F., Sanz-Medel, A, The potential of double focusing-ICP-MS for studying elemental distribution patterns in whole milk, skimmed milk and milk whey of different milks, Analytica Chimica Acta, 2001, 191-200.
[20]  Sola-Larranaga C, Navarro-Blasco I. Chemometric analysis of minerals and trace elements in raw cow milk from the community of Navarra, Spain. Food Chemistry. 2009; 112: 189-196.
[21]  FAO/WHO-Food, 2000, Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants, Food Additives Series: Expert committee on food additives.
[22]  JECFA, 2000, Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 44 IPCS-International Programme on Chemical Safety Contaminants. v44jeeI2.htm