American Journal of Food and Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2374-1155 ISSN (Online): 2374-1163 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mihalis Panagiotidis
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2014, 2(1), 11-17
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-2-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Proximate Analysis, Mineral Contents, Amino Acid Composition, Anti-Nutrients and Phytochemical Screening of Brachystegia Eurycoma Harms and Pipper Guineense Schum and Thonn

Ajayi Olubunmi Bolanle1, Akomolafe Seun Funmilola1, and Adefioye Adedayo1

1Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria

Pub. Date: March 03, 2014

Cite this paper:
Ajayi Olubunmi Bolanle, Akomolafe Seun Funmilola and Adefioye Adedayo. Proximate Analysis, Mineral Contents, Amino Acid Composition, Anti-Nutrients and Phytochemical Screening of Brachystegia Eurycoma Harms and Pipper Guineense Schum and Thonn. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2014; 2(1):11-17. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-2-1-3


The proximate, mineral and amino acid compositions of two different seeds belonging to different families; Brachystegia eurycoma harms and Pipper guineense schum and thonn were investigated. The proximate analysis revealed the values of carbohydrate, fat, crude protein, crude fibre, ash and moisture contents present to be 53.57%, 4.49%, 8.75%, 17.20%, 5% and 10.60%; 46.57%, 17.30%, 9.33%, 4.20%, 9.90% and 12.70% respectively. Minerals present are Ca (0.64), Na (0.09), K (0.25), Fe (0.111), Mg (0.05) and Mn (0.066) for Brachystegia eurycoma harms and Ca (0.42), K (0.81), Na (0.32), Ph (0.25), Zn (0.081), Mg (0.04) and Mn(0.098) in ppm. The anti-nutrient constituents of both seeds revealed the presence of tannins, phytate and cyanide at relatively low concentrations. Phytochemical screening also analysed for the seeds were all positive except glycosides and anthraquinones which are negative in Brachystegia eurycoma harms and Pipper guineense schum and thonn respectively. This shows that both seeds have therapeutic roles in living organisms. The amino acid (AA) analysis revealed that AA was more concentrated in B. eurycoma harms with the total value of 42.28g/100g than 38.78g/100g of P. guineense schum and thonn. The former also exceeded the later in total EAA by difference of 4.67g/100g. The P-PER and pI both seeds were 2.59; 2.54 and 2.61; 2.18, while the limiting AA was Met + Cys (0.40) and Ile (0.28) for B. eurycoma harms and P. Guineense schum and thonn respectively.

Brachystegia eurycoma harms Pipper guineense schum and thonn proximate minerals anti-nutrients phytochemicals and amino acids

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Baj, A.J., (1990). Legumes and oil seed crops, Leguminosae and HomoSapien Econ. Bol, pp36: 46-70.
[2]  Kilgour OFG., (1987). Mastering Nutrition, London, Macmillan Education Ltd.
[3]  Association of Official Analytical Chemists, (1990). Official methods of analysis, 16th ed., Washington DC, U.S.A.
[4]  Osborne, D.R. and Voogt, P., (1978). In: Calculations of caloric value in the analysis of nutrients in foods. Academic Press New York. pp 239-240.
[5]  Sofowora, A.O. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. University of Ife Press 2nd Ed. pp 320.
[6]  Trease, G.E. and Evans, M.D., (1989). A text book of Pharmacognosy. 13th Ed. Builler Trindall and Canssel London. Pp 176-180.
[7]  Ogunlade, I., Ilugbiyin, A. and Osasona, I.A., (2011). A Comparative Study of Proximate Composition, Anti-Nutrient Composition and Functional Properties of Pachira glabra and Afzelia Africana seed flours. African Journal Food Science. Vol 5(1), pp.32-35.
[8]  Amoo, I.A. and Agunbiade, F.O., (2009). Some Nutrient and Anti-Nutrient Components of Pterygota macrocarpa. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. Vol. 10(2): 949-955.
[9]  Akoja, S.S. and Amoo I.A., (2011). Proximate Composition of Some Under-Exploited Leguminous Crop Seeds. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 10 (2): 143-146.
[10]  Ogbe, A.O. and John, P.A., (2012). Proximate study, Mineral and Anti-nutrient composition of Moringa oleifera leaves harvested from Lafia, Nigeria: Potential benefits in poultry nutrition and health. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. 1 (3): 296-308.
[11]  Blessing, A.C., Ifeanyi, U.M. and Chijioke, O.B., (2011). Nutritional Evaluation of Some Nigerian Pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.). Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science and Biotechnology. Global Science Books. 5 (2): 64-71.
[12]  Desai, B.B. and Salunkhe, D.K., (1991). Fruits and Vegetables. In: Salunkhe DK, Deshpande SS (Eds) Foods of Plant Origin. Production, Technology and Human Nutrition, AVI, New York, pp 301-355.
[13]  Frazier, W.S. and Westoff, D.C., (1978). Food Microbiology (3rd Edn), McGraw Hill, New York, pp 278-298.
[14]  Davey, K.R., (1989). A predictive model for combined temperature and water activity on microbial growth during the growth phase. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 65 (5): 483-488.
[15]  Thompson, A.K., (1996). Postharvest treatments. In: Postharvest Technology of Fruit and Vegetables, Blackwell Science Ltd., Cambridge, Mass, pp 95-128.
[16]  Akindahunsi, A.A. and Salawu, S.O., (2005). Phytochemical screening and nutrient-antinutrient composition of selected tropical green leafy vegetables. African Journal of Biotechnology. 4: 497-501.
[17]  Agostoni, C., Riva, R. and Giovanini, M., (1995). Dietary fiber in warming foods of young children. Pediatrics, 96: 1000-1005.
[18]  Bello, M.O., Falade, O.S., Adewusi, SRA., and Olawore, N.O., (2008). Studies on the chemical compositions and anti-nutrients of some lesser known Nigeria fruits. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7 (21): 3972-3979.
[19]  Saldanha, L.G., (1995). Fiber in the diet of U.S. children: Results of national surveys. Paediatrics. 96: 994-996.
[20]  Lajide, L., Oseke, M.O. and Olaoye, O.O., (2008). Vitamin C, fiber, lignin and mineral contents of some edible legume seedlings. Journal of Food Technology. 6 (6): 237-241.
[21]  Lohlum, S.A., Maikidi, G.H. and Solomon, M., (2010). Proximate composition, amino acid profile and Phytochemical screening of lophira lanceolata seeds. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development. 10 (1): 2012-2023.
[22]  Oseni, O.A. and Akindahunsi, A.A., (2011). Some Phytochemical properties and effect of fermentation on the seed of Jatropha curcas L. American Journal of Food Technology. 6 (2): 158-165.
[23]  Suarez, F.L., Springfield, J., Furne, J.K., Lohrmann, T.T., Kerr, P.S. and Levitt, M.D., (1999). Gas production in humans ingesting soybean flour derived from beans naturally low in oligosaccharides. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 69 (1): 135-139.
[24]  Idouraine, A., Kohlhepp, E.A., Weber, C.W., Warid, W.A. and Martinez-Tellez, J., (1996). Nutrient constituent from eight lines of naked squash (CucurbiIta pepo L.). Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 44: 721-724.
[25]  Alfawaz, M., (2004). Nutritional and oil characteristics of pumpkins (Ccurbita maxima) seed kernals. Food Science and Agricultural Research Center, King Saud University, Bulletin Number 129, pp 518.
[26]  Kimbonguila, A., Nzikou, J.M., Matos, L., Loumouamou, B., Ndangui, C.B., Pambou-Tobi, N.P.G., Abena, A.A., Silou, T.H., Scher, J. and Desobry, S., (2010). Proximate Composition and Physicochemical Properties on the seeds and oil of Annona muricata grown in Congo-Brazzaville. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 2 (1): 13-18.
[27]  Omotoso, O.T., (2005). Nutritional quality, functional properties and anti-nutrient composition of the larvw of Cirina forda (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Journal of Zhejiang University of Science. 7 (1): 51-55.
[28]  Nnamani, C.V., Oselebe, H.O. and Agbatutu, A., (2009). Assessment of nutritional values of three underutilized indigenous leafy vegetables of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8 (9): 2321-2324.
[29]  Pomeranz, and Clifton, D., (1981). Properties of defatted soybean, peanut field pea and pecan flours. Journal of Food Science. 42: 1440-1450.
[30]  Behera, K.K., Maharana, T., Sahoo, S. and Prusti, A., (2009). Biochemical qualification of protein, fat, starch, crude fiber, ash and dry matter content in different collection of greater yam (Dioscorea alata L.) found in Orissa. Nature and Science. 7 (7): 24-32.
[31]  Ene-Obong, H.N., (1992). Nutritional evaluation, composition pattern and processing of underutilized traditional foods particular reference to the African yambeans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). PhD thesis, Department of Home Science and Nutrition, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[32]  Ali, A., (2010). A comparative study of nutrients and mineral molar ratios of some plant foods with recommended dietary allowances. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2 (2): 104-108.
[33]  Effiong, G.S., Ibia, T.O. and Udofia, U.S., (2009). Nutritive and energy values of some wild fruit spices in South -Eastern Nigeria. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 8 (10): 917-923.
[34]  Ibanga, O.I. and Okon, D.E. (2009). Minerals and anti-nutrients in two varieties of African pear (Dacryodes edulis). Journal of Food Technology. 7 (4): 106-110.
[35]  O'Dell, B.L. (1979). In "Soy Protein and Human Nutrition"; Wilcke, H.L.; Hopkins, D. T.; Waggle, D. H., Eds.; Academic Press: New York, pp 187.
[36]  Lawal, O.U., (2012). The mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of senna alata and cajanus cajan and their medicinal value. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences. 1 (1): 1-11.
[37]  Soetan, K.O., Olaiya, C.O. and Oyewole, O.E., (2010). The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A review, African Journal of Food Science. 4 (5): 200-222.
[38]  Hanif, R., Iqbal, Z., Iqbal, M., Hanif, S. and Rasheed, M., (2006). Use of vegetables as nutritional food: Role in human health. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 1 (1): 18-20.
[39]  Okaka, J.C., Enoch, NTA. and Okaka, NCA., (2006). Food and Human Nutrition. O.J. C Academic Publishers, Enugu, Nigeria. Pp 135-153.
[40]  Ladan, M.J., Bibilis, L.S. and Lawal, M., (1996). Nutrients composition of some green leafy vegetables consumed in Sokoto, Nigerian. Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 5: 39-44.
[41]  Elegbede, J.A., (1998). Legumes. In: Nutritional quality of plant foods. Osagie, A. U. Eka, O. U. (Eds), Post harvest research unit, University of Benin. Pp 53-83.
[42]  Borgert, I., Briggs, G.M. and Calloway, H., (1975). Nutritional and physical fitness. W. B saunder and Co., Philadephia, USA. Pp 34-50.
[43]  Asaolu, S.S., Ipinmoroti, K.O., Adeyinwo, C.E. and Olaofe, O., (1997). Seasonal variation in heavy metals distribution sediments of Ondo state coastal region. Ghana Journal of Chemistry. 3: 11-16.
[44]  Nieman, D.C., Butterworth, D.E., Nieman, C.N., (1992). Nutrition WM.C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque.
[45]  Dei, H.K., Rose, S.P. and Mackenzie, A.M., (2007). Shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal as a feed ingredient for poultry. In world’s poultry science journal, vol. 63, no.4, p. 611-624.
[46]  Harborne, J.B., (1984). Phytochemical methods. London chapman and Hall ltd., pp 49-188.
[47]  Okwu, D.E., (2001). Evaluation of chemical composition spices and flavouring agents. Global Journal Pure Applied Science. 7: 455-459.
[48]  Asquith, T.N. and Butter, L.G., (1986). Interaction of condensed tannins with selected proteins, Phytochemistry. 25 (7): 1591-1593.
[49]  Hufford, C.D., Jia, Y., Cromm, Jr E.M., Muhammed, I., Okunade, A.L., Clark, A.M. and Rogers, R.D., (1993). Antimicrobial compound from Petalostenum purpureum. Journal of Natural products. 56: 1878-1889.
[50]  Iniaghe, O.M., Malomo, S.O. and Adebayo, J.D., (2009). Proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of leaves of some Acalypha spp. Journal of Nutrition. 8 (3): 256-258.
[51]  De-Bruyne, T., Pieters, L,Deelstra, H. and Ulietinck, A., (1999). Condensed vegetable tannins: Biodiversity in structure and biological activities. In Biochemical Systematic and Ecology, vol. 27, pp 445-459.
[52]  Sathe, S.K., Salunkhe, D.K., (1984). Technology of removal of unwanted components of dry bean. CRC.Critical Review of Food Science and Nutrition, 21: 263-286.
[53]  Ogunkoya, M.O., Abulude, F.O. and Oni, A.B., (2006). Determination of anatomical, proximate, minerals, oxalate, tannin and phytate compositions in Cuban boa (Epicrates anquifer). Electronic Journal of Environmental Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 5 (1): 1161-1166.
[54]  Emijuigha, V.N. and Agbede, J.O. (2000). Nutritional and anti-nutrtional characteristics of African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrohylla benth) seeds. Applied Tropical Agriculture. 5 (1): 11-14.
[55]  Mehansho, A., Buttler, L.G. and Carbon, D.M., (1987). Dietary tannin and salivary proline-rich proteins: interaction and defense mechanism. Annual Review of Nutrition. 7: 423-430.
[56]  Oboh, G., (2006). Nutritive value and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Strchium sparganophora leaves. Journal of Medicinal Food. 9 (2): 276-280.
[57]  Oboh, G., Akindahunsi, A.A. and Oshodi, A.A., (2003). Dynamics of phytate-Zn balance of fungi fermented cassava products (flour and garri). Plants Foods for Human Nutrition. 58: 1-7.
[58]  Maynard, D.N., Elmstrom, G.W. and Wessel-Beaver, L., (1994). Improvement of tropical pumpkin, Cucurbita moschata (Lam) poir: In Cucurbitaceae 94, Evaluation and Enhancement of Cucurbita germplasm. Created by Wehner TC and TNg, South Padre Island. Pp 1-4.
[59]  Bingham, S., (1977). Dictionary of Nutrition, Barrie and Jenkins Limited, London, pp 76-281.
[60]  Fathima, K.R., Soris, P.T., amd Mohan, V.R., (2010). Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Assessment of Mucana puriens (L.) DC var. puriens an Underuntilized Tribal Pulse.Advances in Bioresearch, vol 1(2): 79-89.
[61]  Adeyeye, E.I., Akinyeye, R.O., Ogunlade, I., Olaofe, O. and Boluwade, J.O., (2010). Effect of farm and industrial processing on the amino acid profile of cocoa beans. Food Chemistry journal, 118, 337-363.
[62]  FAO/WHO/UNU, (1985). Energy and Protein Requirements, WHO Tech. Report Ser. No. 724, Geneva, pp 205.
[63]  Nielson, S.S., (2002). Introduction to the Chemical Analysis of Foods, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
[64]  FAO/WHO, (1991). Protein Quality Evaluation, Report of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 51, FAO/WHO. Rome, pp 4-66.
[65]  FAO/WHO, (1973). Energy and Protein Requirements, Technical Report Series No. 522, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 1-118.