American Journal of Energy Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-7349 ISSN (Online): 2328-7330 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Energy Research. 2017, 5(3), 63-78
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-5-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Numerical Modelling of an H-type Darrieus Wind Turbine Performance under Turbulent Wind

Ahmed Ahmedov1 and K. M. Ebrahimi2,

1Thermotechnics, Hydraulics and Ecology, University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria

2Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK

Pub. Date: November 14, 2017

Cite this paper:
Ahmed Ahmedov and K. M. Ebrahimi. Numerical Modelling of an H-type Darrieus Wind Turbine Performance under Turbulent Wind. American Journal of Energy Research. 2017; 5(3):63-78. doi: 10.12691/ajer-5-3-1


This paper presents the force interaction between fluid flow and a rotating H-type Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine. The main goal of this study is to determine the wind rotor’s performance characteristics under turbulent wind: torque M = f (n), normal force FN = f (n), output power P = f (n) and the aerodynamic characteristics CM = f (λ), CN = f (λ), CP = f (λ). The flow passing through the turbine has a complex structure due to the rotation of the rotor. The constantly changing angular position of the turbine’s blades is leading to a variation in the blades angle of attack. This angle can vary from positive to negative values in just a single turbine revolution. The constant fluctuations of the angle of attack are the main factor which leads to the unsteady nature of the flow passing through the turbine. At low tip-speed ratios, the phenomena deep dynamic stall occurs which leads to intensive eddy generation. When the turbine is operating at higher tip-speed ratio the flow is mainly attached to the blades and the effect of the dynamic stall over the turbine performance is from weak to none. The Darrius turbine performance characteristics are obtained through a numerical investigation carried out for several tip-speed ratios. The used CFD technique is based upon the URANS approach for solving the Navier-Stokes equations in combination with the turbulence model k – ω SST. Also, a numerical sensitive study concerning some of the simulation parameters is carried out.

H-Darrieus VAWT CFD modelling turbulence models performance characteristics aerodynamic characteristics

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 22


[1]  Brochier G, Fraunié P, Béguier C, Paraschivoiu I. Water channel experiments of dynamic stall on Darrieus wind turbine blades. Journal of Propulsion and Power 1986; 2(5):445e9.
[2]  Templin RJ. Aerodynamic performance theory for the NRC vertical axis wind turbine. National Research Council of Canada Report June 1974. LTR-LA-160.
[3]  Strickland J. H. The Darrieus turbine: a performance prediction model using multiple streamtubes. Sandia Laboratories Report October 1975. SAND75-0431.
[4]  Paraschivoiu I., Delclaux F. Double multiple streamtubes model with recent improvement. Journal of Energy 1983; 7(3): 250-5.
[5]  Paraschivoiu, I., 2002, Wind Turbine Design with Emphasis on Darrieus Concept, Polytechnic, Brooklyn, NY.
[6]  Strickland, J. H., Webster, B. T., Nguyen, T., 1979, “A Vortex Model of the Darrieus Turbine: An Analytical and Experimental Study,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 101, pp. 500-505.
[7]  Larsen HC. Summary of a vortex theory for the cyclo-giro. Proceedings of the second US national conferences on wind engineering research, Colorado state university, 1975. p. V8-1-3.
[8]  Lishman J., Challenges in modelling the unsteady aerodynamics of wind turbines. Wind Energy 2002; 5(2-3): 85-132.
[9]  Versteeg H., Malalasekera W., An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics, Pearson Education Limited, 2007, ISBN: 978-0-13-127498-3.
[10]  Hamada, K., Smith, T. C., Durrani, N., Qin, N., Howell, R., 2008, “Unsteady Flow Simulation and Dynamic Stall around Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blades,” 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, USA.
[11]  Howell, R., Qin, N., Edwards, J., and Durrani, N., February 2010, “Wind Tunnel and Numerical Study of a Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,” Renewable Energy, 35(2), pp. 412-422.
[12]  Castelli R., Ardizzon M., Battisti G., Benini L., Pavesi G., 2010, “Modeling Strategy and Numerical Validation for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Micro-Wind Turbine,” ASME Conference Proceedings, 2010, pp. 409-418.
[13]  Castelli R., M., Englaro, A., and Benini, E., 2011, “The Darrieus Wind Turbine: Proposal for a New Performance Prediction Model Based on CFD,” Energy, 36(8), pp. 4919-4934.
[14]  Amet E., Maître T., Pellone C., 2D numerical simulations of blade-vortex interaction in a Darrieus turbine. Journal of Fluids Engineering 2009, 131/111103: 1-15.
[15]  Laneville A., Vittecoq P. Dynamic stall: The case of the vertical axis wind turbine. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 1986; 108:140-5.
[16]  Nobile, R., Vahdati, M., Barlow, J., and Mewburn-Crook, A., 2011, Dynamic Stall for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine in a Two-Dimensional Study, World Renewable Energy Congress - Sweden, Linköping, Sweden.
[17]  Simão Ferreira, C. J., Van Zuijlen, A., Bijl, H., Van Bussel, G., Van Kuik, G., 2010, “Simulating Dynamic Stall in a Two-Dimensional Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine: Verification and Validation with Particle Image Velocimetry Data,” Wind Energy, 13(1), pp. 1-17.
[18]  Consul, C. A., Willden, R. H. J., Ferrer, E., and Mcculloch, M. D., 2009, “Influence of Solidity on the Performance of a Cross-Flow Turbine” Proceedings of the 8th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference., Uppsala, Sweden.
[19]  Sheldahl, R. E., Klimas, P. C., 1981, “Aerodynamic Characteristics of Seven Symmetrical Airfoil Sections through 180-Degree Angle of Attack for Use in Aerodynamic Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines” Technical Report No. SAND80 - 2114, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
[20]  McLaren K., Tullis S., Ziada S., 2011, “Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of the Aerodynamics of a High Solidity, Small-Scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,” Wind Energy, 15(3), pp. 349-361.
[21]  Edwards, J. M., Danao, L. A., Howell, R. J., 2012, “Novel Experimental Power Curve Determination and Computational Methods for the Performance Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 134(3), pp. 11.
[22]  Lee, T., and Gerontakos, P., 2004, “Investigation of Flow over an Oscillating Airfoil,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 512, pp. 313-341.
[23]  Iida, A., Mizuno, A., and Fukudome, K., 2007, “Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flow and Aerodynamic Performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines with Les,” 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, P. Jacobs, et al., eds. Gold Coast, Australia, pp. 1295-1298.
[24]  McCroskey WJ., Dynamic stall of airfoils and helicopters rotors. Technical Report, AGARD April 1972; 8595:2.1-7.
[25]  McLaren K., A numerical and experimental study of unsteady loading of high solidity vertical axis wind turbines. McMaster: McMaster University; 2011.
[26]  Cummings, R.M., Forsythe, J.R., Morton, S.A., Squires, K.D., Computational Challenges in High Angle of Attack Flow Prediction, 2003, Progr Aerosp. Sci. 39(5):369-384.
[27]  ANSYS Fluent 14.0, Fluent User’s Guide.
[28]  Maître T., Amet E., Pellone C. Modeling of the flow in a Darrieus water turbine: wall grid refinement analysis and comparison with experiments. Renewable Energy 2012; 51:497-512.