American Journal of Energy Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-7349 ISSN (Online): 2328-7330 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Energy Research. 2019, 7(1), 19-30
DOI: 10.12691/ajer-7-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Variability of Onshore Wind Energy Potential in the 60 m above the Ground under Convective Atmosphere in Southern Benin

Hagninou Elagnon Venance Donnou1, , Aristide Barthélémy Akpo1, Gbènoukpo Fidèle Nonfodji1 and Basile Bruno Kounouhewa1

1Laboratoire de Physique du Rayonnement (LPR), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques (FAST), Université d’Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P.526, Cotonou, Benin

Pub. Date: July 04, 2019

Cite this paper:
Hagninou Elagnon Venance Donnou, Aristide Barthélémy Akpo, Gbènoukpo Fidèle Nonfodji and Basile Bruno Kounouhewa. Variability of Onshore Wind Energy Potential in the 60 m above the Ground under Convective Atmosphere in Southern Benin. American Journal of Energy Research. 2019; 7(1):19-30. doi: 10.12691/ajer-7-1-3


The variability of onshore wind energy potential has been investigated over Cotonou coast (Benin) under an unstable atmosphere. Data on the speed and the wind direction at 10 m above the ground recorded every 10 min, have been used over the period from June 2011 to April 2014. The power law based on atmospheric stability was used to determine the vertical wind profile. The Weibull function was used to characterize the frequency distribution of the wind speed and to calculate the wind energy potential. The results indicate that the annual average of the wind speed for a typical day time varies from 3.8 ± 0.40 m.s-1 (10 m) to 7.25 ± 0.58 m.s-1 (60 m) during the convective diurnal cycle. The mean parameters k and c of Weibull were evaluated respectively from 1.65 (December) to 2.21 (August) and from 4.3 (December) to 9.1 m.s-1 (August). The most frequent wind speeds at the study site are between 2.5 ± 0.56 m.s-1 in December to 7 ± 0.24 m.s-1 in August from 10 to 60 m. The average wind speeds giving the maximum energy vary from 6.91 ± 0.56 m.s-1 in December at 10 m to 12.20 ± 0.24 m.s-1 in August at 60 m. Finally, the wind energy potential has been evaluated. As a result, the largest quantity of energy are generally collected between 13:00 UTC and 18:00 UTC. During the months of March, July and August, the daily energy peaks are observed between 14:00 UTC and 18:00 UTC with the values of the order of 650 to 770 W.m-2 at 60 m. The average annual energy potential has been estimated at 130.43 W.m-2 (10 m) and 332.67 W.m-2 (60 m). In view of these results, the site of Cotonou could be suitable for the installation of small and large wind turbines in order to supply the southern Benin with power energy.

wind energy convective atmosphere vertical wind profile wind speed Weibull function

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Soulouknga, M. H., Oyedepo S. O., Doka, S. Y. and Kofane, T. C., “Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in the Sudanese Zone in Chad”, Energy and Power Engineering, 9(7). 386-402. July 2017.
[2]  Vani, N. and Khare, V., “Rural Electrification System Based on Hybrid Energy System Model Optimizing Using Homer”, Canadian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(1). 19-25. August 2013.
[3]  Keyhani, A., Ghasemi, M., Khanali, M. and Abbaszadeh, R., “An Assessment of Wind Energy Potential as a Power Generation Source in the Capital of Iran, Te-hran”, Energy, 35(1). 188-201. January 2010.
[4]  Olayinka, S. and Olaolu, O., “Assessment of Wind Energy Potential and the Economics of Wind Power Generation in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria”, Energy for Sustainable Development, 16(1). 78-83. March 2012.
[5]  Shown, M., Chaar, L. and Lamont, L., “Overview of Wind Energy and Its Cost in the Middle East”, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 2(1). 1-11. June 2013.
[6]  Qolipour, M., Mostafaeipour, A. and Rezaei, M.,”A mathematical model for simultaneous optimization of renewable electricity price and construction of new wind power plants (case study: Kermanshah)”, Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng, 9(1). 71-80. March 2018.
[7]  Ismaiel, A. M. M. and Yoshida, S., “Study of turbulence intensity effect on the fatigue lifetime of wind turbines”, Journal of Novel Carbon Resource Sciences & Green Asia Strategy, 05(1). 25-32. March 2018.
[8]  Wind Power Monthly, 2017. [Accessed Dec 15, 2017].
[9]  Global Wind Energy Council, content/uploads/2018/02/Global_Cumulative_Installed_Wind_Capacity_2001-2017. jpg. 2017. [Accessed Dec. 15, 2017].
[10]  Okeniyi, J. O., Ohunakin, O. S. and Okeniyi, E. T. “Assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: implications for renewable/sustainable rural electrification”, Scientific World Journal, Article ID 581679, 1-13. January 2015.
[11]  Allouhi, A., Zamzoum, O., Islam, M. R., Rahman S., Kousksou, T., Jamil, A. and Derouich, A., “Evaluation of wind energy potential in Morocco’s coastal regions”, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev, 72. 311-324. May 2017.
[12]  Kasbadji, N. M., “Evaluation du Gisement énergétique éolien. Contribution à la détermination du profil vertical de la vitesse du vent”, Thèse de Doctorat, Université Abou BekrBelkaïd de Tlemcen. 2006.
[13]  Boudia, S. M., Benmansour, A., Ghellai, N., Benmdjahed, M. and Tabet Hellal, M. A., “Temporal assessment of wind energy resource in algerian highlands regions”, Revue des Energies Renouvelables, 15(1). 43-55. March 2012.
[14]  Boudia, S. M., Benmansour, A., Ghellai, N., Benmedjahed M., and Hellal, M. A. T., “Temporal assessment of wind energy resource at four locations in Algerian Sahara”, Energy Convers. Manag, 76. 654-664. December 2013.
[15]  Ayodele, T. R., Jimoh, A. A., Munda, J. L. and Agee, J. T., “A Statistical Analysis of Wind Distribution and Wind Power Potential in the Coastal Region of South Africa”, “International Journal of Green Energy”, 10(8). 814-834. September 2013.
[16]  Wright, M. A. and Grab, S. W., “Wind speed characteristics and implications for wind power generation: Cape regions, South Africa”, South African Journal of Science. 113(7/8), 1-8. February 2017.
[17]  Fagbenle, R. O., Katende, J., Ajayi, O. O. and Okeniyi, J. O., “Assessment of wind energy potential of two sites in North-East, Nigeria”, “Renewable Energy” 36(4). 1277-1283. April 2011.
[18]  Ajayi, O. O., Fagbenle, R. O., Katende, J. and Okeniyi J. O., “Availability of wind energy resource potential for power generation of Jos, Nigeria”, Frontiers in Energy, 5(4). 376-385. December 2011.
[19]  Ajayi, O. O., Fagbenle, R. O., Katende, J., Ndambuki, J. M., Omole, D. O. and Badejo, A. A., “Wind Energy Study and Energy Cost of Wind Electricity Generation in Nigeria: Past and Recent Results and a Case Study for South West Nigeria”, Energies, 7. 8508-8534. December 2014.
[20]  Akinsanola, A. A., Ogunjobi, K. O., Abolude, A. T., Sarris, S. C. and Ladipo, K. O., “Assessment of Wind Energy Potential for Small Communities in South-South Nigeria: Case Study of Koluama, Bayelsa State”, J Fundam Renewable Energy Appl, 7(2). 1-6. February 2017.
[21]  Oyedepo, S. O., Adaramola, M. S. and Paul S. S., “Analysis of wind speed data and wind energy potential in three selected locations in south-east Nigeria”, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 3(7). 1-11. May 2012.
[22]  Fadare, D. A., “A statistical analysis of wind energy potential in Ibadan, Nigeria, based on Weibull distribution function”, Pac J Sci Technol, 9(1). 110-119. May-June 2008.
[23]  Ohunakin, O. S., “Wind resources in North-East geopolitical zone, Nigeria: An assessment of the monthly and seasonal characteristics”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15. 1977-1987. January 2011.
[24]  Mas’ud, A. A., Wirba, A. V., Ardila-Rey, J. A., Albarracín, R., Muhammad-Sukki, F., Duque, A. J., Bani, N. A. and Munir A. B., “Wind Power Potentials in Cameroon and Nigeria: Lessons from South Africa”, Energies, 10, 443. 1-19. March 2017.
[25]  Olaofe, Z. O. “On the Remapping and Identification of Potential Wind Sites in Nigeria”, Energy and Power Engineering, 7. 477-499. September 2015.
[26]  Oluleye, A. and Ogungbenro, S. B., “Estimating the wind energy potential over the coastal stations of Nigeria using power law and diabatic methods”, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 5(11). 985-992. November 2011.
[27]  Na, U., Oluleye A. and Ka, I., “Investigation of Wind Power Potential over Some Selected Coastal Cities in Nigeria”, Innovative Energy & Research, 6(1). 1-12. May 2017.
[28]  Nkongho, A. A., Ebobenow, J. and Afungchui D., “Wind energy potential assessment of cameroon’s coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm”, Heliyon, 2(11). 1-19. November 2016.
[29]  Adaramola M. S., Agelin-Chaab M., Paul, S. S., “Assessment of wind power generation along the coast of Ghana”, Energy Conversion and Management, 77. 61-69. January 2014.
[30]  Essandoh, E. O., Osei, E. Y., Adam, F. W., “Prospects of wind power generation in ghana”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 5(10). 156-179. November 2014.
[31]  Sarpong, D. and Baffoe, P. E., “Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana”. Ghana Mining Journal, 16(1). 8-20. June 2016.
[32]  Salami, A. A., Ajavon, A. S. A., Mawugno, K. Kodjo, M. K. and Bédja, K., “ Evaluation of wind Potential for an Optimum Choice of Wind Turbine Generator on the sites of Lomé, Accra and Cotonou Located in the Gulf of Guinea”, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development 5(3). 211-233. August 2016.
[33]  Ajavon, A. S. A., Salami, A. A., Kodjo M. K., Bédja K., “Comparative characterization study of the variability of wind energy potential by wind direction sectors for three coastal sites in Lomé, Accra and Cotonou”, Journal of Power Technologies, 95(2). 134-142. 2015.
[34]  Salami, A. A., Ajavon, A. S. A., Kodjo, M. K. and Bedja, K. “Contribution to improving the modeling of wind and evalaution of the wind potential of the site of Lome : Problems of taking into account the frequency of calm winds”, Renewable Energy, 50. 449-455. February 2013.
[35]  Youm, I., Sarr, J., Sall, M., Ndiaye, A. and Kane, M. M. “Analysis of wind data and wind energy potential along the northern coast of Senegal”, Rev. Energ. Ren., 8(2). 95-108. December 2005.
[36]  Ouldbilal, B., Ndongo, M., Kebe, C. M. F., Sambou, V. and Ndiaye, P. A., “Feasibility study of wind energy potential for electricity genaration in the northwestern coast of Senegal”, Energy Procedia, 36, 1119-1129. 2013.
[37]  Ouldbilal, B., Ndongo, M., Sambou, V., Ndiaye, P. A. and Kebe, C. M., “Diurnal characteristics of the wind potential along the northwestern coast of Senegal”, International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 6(35). 7950-7960. December 2011.
[38]  Madougou, S., Said, F., Campistron, B., Lothon, M. and Kebe, F. C., “Results of UHF Radar Observation of the Nocturnal Low-Level Jet for Wind Energy Applications”, Acta Geophysica, 60(5). 1413-1453. October 2012.
[39]  Awanou, C. N., Degbey, J. M. and Ahlonsou, E., “Estimation of the mean wind energy avaible in Benin (ex Dahomey)”, Renew. Energy, 1(40), 845-853. 1991.
[40]  Houekpoheha, M. A., Kounouhewa, B., Tokpohozin, B. N. and Awanou, C. N., “Estimation de la puissance énergétique éolienne à partir de la distribution de weibull sur la côte béninoise de Cotonou dans le golfe de guinée”, Revue des Energies Renouvelables, 17(3). 489-495. Septembre 2014.
[41]  Akpo, A. B., Damada, J. C. T., Donnou, H. E. V., Kounouhewa, B. and Awanou, C. N., “Estimation de la production énergétique d’un aérogénérateur sur un site isolé dans la région côtière du Bénin”, Revue des Energies Renouvelables, 18(3), 457-468. September 2015.
[42]  DGE (2017). Rapport annuel 2015 et évolution 2010-2015 du secteur de l’énergie, Système d’information énergétique du Bénin. Direction Générale de l’Energie (DGE). Ministère de l’Energie. Bénin.
[43]  Justus, C. G., Hargraves, W. R., Mikhail, A. and Graber, D. “Methods for Estimating Wind Speed Frequency Distributions”, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 17 (3), 350-53. Mach 1978.
[44]  [44]Justus, C. G., and Mikhail, A., “Height Variation of Wind Speed and Wind Distributions Statistics”, Geophysical Research Letters' 3 (5), 261-64. May 1976.
[45]  Donnou, H. E. V., Akpo., A. B., Kouchadé, A. C., Kounouhewa, B. B., Hounguè, G. H., Nonfodji, G. F. and Djossou, J., “Vertical profile of wind diurnal cycle in the surface boundary layer over the coast of Cotonou, Benin, under a convective atmosphere”, Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2019, Article ID 7530828, 18 pages, April 2019.
[46]  Guedje, F. K., Houngninou, B. E., Adanmitonde, T. and Adechinan, A. J., “Dynamic State Of Atmosphere On The Coast Of Benin From Radiosonde Data Of Cotonou”, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 5(12). 1-4. December 2016.
[47]  Hounguè, G. H., Kounouhéwa, B. B., Tokpohozin, B. N., Houékpohéha M. A., Madogni, V. I, and Almar, R., “Wave Energy Impact on Benin’s Coastline Dynamics, Gulf of Guinea”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 30(4): 1-12, December 2018.
[48]  Richard, E. and Dolle, A. (2011), “Data Report (MCA): Development of a metocean station at the port of cotonou: Supply, installation, operation and maintenance of an oceanographic monitoring: (lot5)”, pp8- atm - 145c, Millennium Challenge Account (MCA I Benin).
[49]  Carta, J. A., Ramirez, P. and Velazquez, S., “A review of wind speed probability distributions used in wind energy analysis: Case studies in the Canary Islands: case studies in the Canary Islands”, Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 13(5). 933-955. June 2009.
[50]  Akpinar, E. K. and Akpinar, S., “An assessment on seasonal analysis of wind energy characteristics and wind turbine characteristics”, Energy Convers Manage, 46(11). 1848-1867. July 2005.
[51]  Koukpémédji A. A., “ Sur le potentiel énergétique éolien en milieu tropicale: Cas du Bénin”, PhD thesis, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Institut de Mathématiques et de Sciences de Physiques, Bénin. 2015.
[52]  Ahmed A. S., “Wind Energy as a Potential Generation Source at Ras Benas, Egypt”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(8). 2167-2173. October 2010.
[53]  Weisser D., “A wind energy analysis of Grenada: an estimation using the Weibull density function”, Renewable Energy, 28(11). 1803-1812. September 2003.
[54]  Justus, C. G., Hargraves, W. R., Mikhail, A. and Graber, D., “Methods for estimating wind speed frequency distributions,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, 17(3). 350-353. March 1978.
[55]  Didane D. H., Rosly N., Zulkafli M. F. and Shamsudin, S. S.., “Evaluation of Wind Energy Potential as a Power Generation Source in Chad”, International Journal of Rotating Machinery, Article ID 3121875, 1-10. May 2017.
[56]  Hellman G., “Uber die Bewegung der Luft in den untersten Schichten der Atmosphere”, Meteorol Z. 34. 273-285. 1916.
[57]  Spera, D. A. and Richards, T. R., “Modified power law equations for vertical wind profiles. In: Conference and workshop on wind energy characteristics and wind energysiting”, Portland OR, USA. 1-10. June 1979.
[58]  Kulkarni S. and Huang H. P., “Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy”, Advances in Meteorology, Article ID 292768, 1-10. September 2014.
[59]  Gualtieri, G. and Secci, S., “Wind shear coefficients, roughness, length and energy yield over coastal locations in Southern Italy”, Renew. Energy, 36(3). 1081-1094. March 2011.
[60]  Paulson C. A., “The mathematical representation of wind speed and temperature profiles in the unstable atmospheric surface layer”, J. Appl. Meteorol, 9. 857-861. December 1970.
[61]  Bajamgnigni, G. A. S. and Steyn, D. G., “Sea breezes at Cotonou and their interaction with the West African monsoon”, Int. J. Climatol, 33(13). 2889-2899. November 2013.
[62]  Guédjé, F. K., Houeto, A. V. V., Houngninou, E. B., Fink, A. H. and Knippertz, P., “Climatology of coastal wind regimes in Benin” Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 1-17. January 2019.
[63]  Arreyndip, A. A., Ebobenow J., Afungchui D., “Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon’s coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm”, Heliyon, 2(11). 1-19. Novembre 2016.
[64]  Montgomery, D. C. and Runger, G. C., “Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers”, 3rd ed.; Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2003.
[65]  Yu, X., and Qu, H. (2010). 'Wind power in China: Opportunity goes with challenge.' J Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 14(8). 2232-2237. October 2010.
[66]  Elliott, D. L., Holladay, C. G., Barchet, W. R., Foote, H. P. and Sandusky, W. F., “Wind energy resource atlas of the United States”. March 1987.