American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease
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American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2017, 5(3), 42-49
DOI: 10.12691/ajeid-5-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Prevalence and Predisposing Factors to Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Fako Division of Cameroon

Dickson Shey Nsagha1, , Longdoh Anna Njunda2, Nguedia Jules Clement Assob2, Charlotte Wenze Ayima2, Elvis Asangbeng Tanue2, Odette Dzemo Kibu2 and Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti2

1Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon

2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea

Pub. Date: September 21, 2017

Cite this paper:
Dickson Shey Nsagha, Longdoh Anna Njunda, Nguedia Jules Clement Assob, Charlotte Wenze Ayima, Elvis Asangbeng Tanue, Odette Dzemo Kibu and Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors to Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Fako Division of Cameroon. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2017; 5(3):42-49. doi: 10.12691/ajeid-5-3-1

Abstract

Background: Understanding the epidemiology of intestinal parasitic infection is essential for the effective management of HIV infection in areas where intestinal parasites are also endemic. Data on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA) in Cameroon are sparse. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, as well as assess the predisposing factors for the infection in PLHWA in Fako Division of Cameroon. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between April and July 2014. Stool specimen were collected from consented participants and examined for ova, cysts, larvae or oocytes using the Kato-Katz, Formalin-Ether Concentration, Modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Modified field staining techniques. Statistical analysis performed included the Chi-square test and logistic regression. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: At the end of the study, 300 participants were enrolled, the majority being females 236 (78.6%). The participants were between 21–70 years (mean±SD = 40±10) of age. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 82.6% (95% CI: 78.4 – 87.0). The prevalence of infection was associated with age, being more prevalent in the age group 51–60 years (p=0.032). Intestinal protozoa were more prevalent than intestinal helminthes (74.3% vs 11.3%). The parasites isolated included: Cryptosporidium parvum (44.0%), Blastocystis hominis (25.0%), Microsporidium spp. (21.0%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.3%), Ascaris lumbricoïdes (4.3%), Isospora belli (4.3%), Trichuris trichiura (2.3%), hookworm (2.7%), Hymenolepis nana (1.3%), Strongyloïdes stercoralis (0.7%), Cyclospora cayetatensis (3.7%) and Giardia lamblia (3.3%). The predisposing factors for infection with intestinal parasites included poor educational background (OR=0.33, p=0.02), unskilled worker (OR=0.27, p=0.04), well as a source of drinking water (OR=2.6, p=0.03), and living with cats as pets (OR=3.06, p=0.01). Conclusion: A very high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was observed in PLHWA. Major predisposing factors for intestinal parasites infection included primary level of education, ownership of cats as pets, wells as source of drinking water and having a blue collar job. Routine screening for intestinal parasites should be instituted as part of HIV care in Fako division of Cameroon to improve on the management of HIV.

Keywords:
HIV protozoa helminthes prevalence predisposing factors Fako Division cameroon

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