American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease
ISSN (Print): 2333-116X ISSN (Online): 2333-1275 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajeid Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2015, 3(5), 95-102
DOI: 10.12691/ajeid-3-5-2
Open AccessArticle

The Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus in Mnisi, South Africa

Steyn J.1, , Venter G.J.2, Coetzee P.1 and Venter E. H.1

1Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa

2Parasites, Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases, Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (ARC-OVI), Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, South Africa

Pub. Date: November 20, 2015

Cite this paper:
Steyn J., Venter G.J., Coetzee P. and Venter E. H.. The Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus in Mnisi, South Africa. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2015; 3(5):95-102. doi: 10.12691/ajeid-3-5-2

Abstract

The role of cattle in the epidemiology of bluetongue (BT) as well as the distribution of different vector species throughout South Africa is not well understood. Mnisi, a rural area located in Mpumalanga, South Africa, was selected for an epidemiological study. The prevalence of Culicoides species associated with this area as well as whether bluetongue virus (BTV) is circulating in the area is unclear. Sera were collected from 1 260 cattle and screened with a BTV-specific cELISA. Light traps operated during autumn and winter periods. Midges were identified to species level, pooled (n = 200) and screened for BTV RNA with a real-time RT-qPCR. Blood samples from seronegative cattle were also screened for BTV RNA. Antibodies specific to BTV were detected in 95.7% of the sera with a statistical significant difference (p < 0.05) between age groups and villages. Twenty-five different Culicoides species were identified of which C. imicola was the most abundant. Bluetongue virus RNA was detected in 51.2% (autumn) and 75.9% (winter) of the midges collected. A total of 35.5% seronegative cattle tested positive for the presence of BTV RNA. These results demonstrate that BTV as well as different vectors are circulating in the Mnisi area.

Keywords:
bluetongue virus Culicoides cattle cELISA epidemiology real-time RT-qPCR segment 10

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Barnard B.J.H. (1997). Antibodies against some viruses of domestic animals in southern African wild animals. Onderstepoort. J. Vet. Res., 64, 95-110.
 
[2]  Barnard B.J.H., Gerdes G.H. & Meiswinkel R. (1998). Some epidemiological and economic aspects of a bluetongue-like disease in cattle in South Africa- 1995/96 and 1997. Onderstepoort. J. Vet. Res., 65:145-151.
 
[3]  Bekker J.G., de Kock G. & Quinlan J.B. (1934). The occurrence and identification of bluetongue in cattle – the so-called pseudo foot-and-mouth disease in South Africa. Onderstepoort. J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Ind., 2, 393-507.
 
[4]  Braverman Y. (1988). Preferred landing sites of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a horse in Israel and its relevance to summer seasonal recurrent dermatitis (sweet itch). Equine. Vet. J., 20(6), 426-429.
 
[5]  Carpenter S., Szmaragd C., Barber J., Labuschagne K., Gubbins S. & Mellor P. (2008). An assessment of Culicoides surveillance techniques in northern Europe: have we underestimated a potential bluetongue virus vector? J. Appl. Ecol., 45, 1237-1245.
 
[6]  Chiang C.L & Reeves W.C. (1962). Statistical estimation of virus infection rates in mosquito vector Populations. Am. J. Hyg, 75 (3): 377-39.
 
[7]  Dal Pozzo F., De Clercq K., Guyot H., Vandemeulebroucke E., Sarradin P., Vandenbussche F., Thiry E., Saegerman C. (2009). Experimental reproduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 clinical disease in calves. Vet Microbiol., 136, 352-358.
 
[8]  Darpel K.E., Batten C.A., Veronesi E., Shaw A.E, Anthony S., Bachanek-Bankowska K., Kgosana L., Bin-Tarif A., Carpenter S., Müller-Doblies U.U., Takamatsu H.H., Mellor P.S., Mertens P.P.C. & Oura C.A. (2007). A study of British sheep and cattle infected with bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the 2006 outbreak in northern Europe. Vet. Res, 161, 253-261.
 
[9]  Dyce A.L. (1969). The recognition of nulliparous and parous Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) without dissection. J. Aust. Entomol. Soc., 1, 11-15.
 
[10]  Elhassan A.M., Fadol M.A. & Hussein A.R.M.E. (2014). Seroprevalence of Bluetongue Virus in Dairy Herds with Reproductive Problems in Sudan. ISRN Vet. Sci., Article ID 595724, 4 pages.
 
[11]  Hendry G., 1996. Midges in Scotland. Mercat Press, Edinburgh.
 
[12]  Leemans J., Raes M., Vanbinst T., De Clercq K., Saegerman C. & Kirschvink, N. (2012). Viral RNA load in semen from bluetongue serotype 8-infected rams: Relationship with sperm quality. Vet J., 192, 304-310.
 
[13]  Maan S., Maan N.S., Ross-smith N., Batten C.A., Shaw A.E., Anthony S.J., Samuel A.R., Darpel K.E., Veronesi E., Oura C.A., Singh K.P., Nomikou, K., Potgieter A.C., Attoui H., van Rooij E., van Rijn P., De , Clercq K., Vandenbussche F., Zientara S., Breard E., Sailleau C., Beer M., Hoffman B., Mellor P.S., Mertens, P.P.C. (2008). Sequence analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the Netherlands 2006 and comparison to other European strains. Virology., 377, 308-318.
 
[14]  MacLachlan N. J., Jagels G., Rossitto P. V, Moore P. F. & Heidner H. W. (1990). The pathogenesis of experimental bluetongue virus infection of calves. Vet. Pathol, 27, 223-229.
 
[15]  Meiswinkel R. (1989). Afrotropical Culicoides: a redescription of C. (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer, 1913 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) with description of the closely allied C. (A.) bolitinos sp. nov. reared from the dung of the African buffalo, blue wildebeest and cattle in South Africa. Onderstepoort. J. Vet. Res., 56 (1), 23-39.
 
[16]  Meiswinkel R. (1992). Afrotropical Culicoides: C. (Avaritia) loxodontis sp. nov., a new member of the lmicola group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with the African elephant in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Onderstepoort. J. Vet. Res., 59, 145-159.
 
[17]  Meiswinkel R., Baylis M. & Labuschagne K. (2000). Stabling and the protection of horses from Culicoides bolitinos (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a recently identified vector of African horse sickness. Bull. Entomol. Res., 90 (6), 509-515.
 
[18]  Meiswinkel R., Gomulski L.M., Delecolle J.C., Goffredo M. & Gasperi G. (2004). The taxonomy of Culicoides vector complexes unfinished business. Vet. Ital., 40, 151-159.
 
[19]  Mellor P.S., Boorman J. & Baylis M. (2000). Culicoides biting midges: Their role as arbovirus vectors. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 45, 307-340.
 
[20]  Mellor P.S. & Wittmann E.J. (2002). Bluetongue virus in the Mediterranean Basin 1998-2001. Veterinary Journal, 164, 20–37. doi:10.1053/tvjl.2002.0713.
 
[21]  Nevill E.M., Erasmus B.J. & Venter G.J. (1992). A six-year survey of viruses associated with Culicoides biting midges throughout South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In: Bluetongue, African Horse Sickness, and Related Orbiviruses (T.E Walton & B.I Osburn, eds). Proceedings of the Second International Symposium, Paris, 1721 June 1991. CRC Press, Inc, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 314-319.
 
[22]  Oyarzún M.P., Palma R., Alberti E., Hormazabal E., Pardo F., Birkett M.A. & Quiroz A (2009). Olfactory Response of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) to Cattle-Derived Volatile Compounds. J. Med. Entomol., 46(6), 1320-1326.
 
[23]  Paweska J.T. & Venter G.J. (2003). Oral susceptibility of South African Culicoides species to live-attenuated serotype-specific vaccine strains of African horse sickness virus (AHSV). Med. Vet. Entomol., 17 (4), 436-447.
 
[24]  Purse B.V., Mellor P.S., Rogers D.J., Samuel A.R., Mertens P.P. & Baylis M. (2005). Climate change and the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3, 171-181.
 
[25]  Schaik G., Berends I.M.G.A., van Langen H., Elbers A.R.W. & Vellema P. (2008). Seroprevalence of bluetongue serotype 8 in cattle in the Netherlands in spring 2007, and its consequences. Vet. Rec., 163, 441-444.
 
[26]  Spreull J. (1905). Malarial catarrhal fever (bluetongue) of sheep in South Africa. J. Comp. Pathol. Therapeut., 18, 321-337.
 
[27]  Thiry E., Saegerman C., Guyot H., Kirten P., Losson B., Rollin F., Bodmer M., Czaplicki G., Toussaint J.F., De Clercq K., Dochy J.M., Dufey J., Gilleman J.L. & Messeman K. (2006). Bluetongue in northern Europe. Vet. Rec., 159, 327.
 
[28]  Toussaint J. F., Sailleau C., Breard E., Zientara S. & De Clercq K. (2007). Bluetongue virus detection by two real-time RT-qPCRs targeting two different genomic segments. J. Virol. Methods., 140, 115-123.
 
[29]  Tweedle N. & Mellor P.S. (2002). Technical review bluetongue: The virus, hosts and vectors. Version 1.5. Report to the Department of Health, Social Services and Pub lic Safety U.K. (DEFRA), 25 p. http://archive.defra.gov.
 
[30]  Van Ark H. & Meiswinkel R. (1992). Subsampling of large light trap catches of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Onderstepoort. J. Vet. Res., 59 (3), 183-189.
 
[31]  Van Rijn P.A., Heutink R.G., Boonstra J., Kramps H.A. & van Gennip R.G.P. (2012). Sustained high-throughput polymerase chain reaction diagnostics during the European epidemic of Bluetongue virus serotype 8. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest., 24(3), 469-478.
 
[32]  Venter G.J., Gerdes G.H., Mellor P.S. & Paweska J.T. (2004). Transmission potential of South African Culicoides species for live attenuated bluetongue virus. Vet. Ital., 40, 198-203.
 
[33]  Venter G.J., Labuschagne K., Boikanyo S.N.B., Majatladi D.M., Venter E.H., Lourens C., Ebersohn K. & Joon C. (2014). Overwintering of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) in Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., in press.
 
[34]  Venter G.J., Mellor P.S. & Paweska J.T. (2006). Oral susceptibility of South African stock-associated Culicoides species to bluetongue virus. Med. Vet. Entomol, 20:329-334.
 
[35]  Venter G.J., Nevill E.M. & Van Der Linde T.C. De K. (1996). Geographical distribution and relative abundance of stock-associated Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in southern Africa, in relation to their potential as viral vectors. Onderstepoort. J. Vet. Res., 63, 25-38.
 
[36]  Venter G.J., Wright I.M., Delrio R., Lucientes J. & Miranda M.A. (2010).The susceptibility of Culicoides imicola and other South African livestock-associated Culicoides species to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8. Med. Vet. Entomol.
 
[37]  Verwoerd D.W. & Erasmus B.J. (2004). Bluetongue. In: Infectious Diseases of Livestock, 2nd edition. Edited by Coetzer J.A.W and Tustin RC. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press; pp. 1201-1220.