American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease
ISSN (Print): 2333-116X ISSN (Online): 2333-1275 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2015, 3(2), 28-31
DOI: 10.12691/ajeid-3-2-2
Open AccessArticle

The Epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans Co- Infections in Women Attending the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital

Dickson Shey Nsagha1, , Denis Zofou2, Jules Clement Nguedia Assob3, Anna Longdoh Njunda3, Che Denis Nchang3, Neville MvoNgum3, Weledji Elroy Patrick4 and Ngowe Ngowe Marcelin4

1Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea

2Biotechnology Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Buea

3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea

4Department of Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon

Pub. Date: April 27, 2015

Cite this paper:
Dickson Shey Nsagha, Denis Zofou, Jules Clement Nguedia Assob, Anna Longdoh Njunda, Che Denis Nchang, Neville MvoNgum, Weledji Elroy Patrick and Ngowe Ngowe Marcelin. The Epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans Co- Infections in Women Attending the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2015; 3(2):28-31. doi: 10.12691/ajeid-3-2-2


Background: Vulvovaginitis is one of the most common problems in health care delivery, and constitutes one of the main purpose that drive women for obstetrics and gynecological consultations in developing countries. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Gardnerellavaginitis, Candidaalbicans and Trichomonasvaginalis co-infection among women and to investigate the contributions of some socioeconomic factors on these infections. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to July 2013 on 249 women attending the University Teaching Hospital Center Yaoundé, Cameroon for gynecological, antenatal, and post natalreasons. The detection of Gardnerellavaginalis, Candidaalbicans and Trichomonasvaginalis was done microscopically using vaginal swabs. A structured questionnaires was used to collect participants` socioeconomic data. Data was analysed on SPSS. Results: 68.7% of the participants had genital infections including 41.0% forGardnerellavaginalis, 26.5% for Candidaalbicans, and 1.2% for Trichomonasvaginalis. Non-pregnant women had statiscally higher prevalence than pregnant women (P < 0.01). Women between 26-40 years had the highest prevalence of each pathogen, although this was not statistically significant. Prevalence was found to be significantly higher with increasing education although women with secondary education were found to have significant values than those with post-secondary education (P < 0.01).Conclusion: The high prevalence of genital infections warrants the implementation of constant health education and sensitization especially among women of child bearing age who are at risk of preterm labor or birth and low birth weight. Epidemiological analytical studies are necessary in this environment to shade more light on risk factors and control strategies.

Gardnerellavaginalis Candidaalbicans Trichomonasvaginalis gynecology socioeconomic

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Friedrich EG Jr. Vaginitis. Am J ObstetGynecol 1985; 152(3): 247-51.
[2]  Schwebke J R, Burgess D. Trichomoniasis. ClinMicrobiol Rev 2004; 17 (4):794-803.
[3]  Turovskiy Y, Sutyak N K, Chinkindas M L. The aetiology of bacterial vaginosis. J ApplMicrobiol 2011; 110(5):1105-28.
[4]  Sobel J D. Non trichomanal purulent vaginitis: clinical approach. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2000; 2(6):501-505.
[5]  Sobel JD. Bacterial vaginosis. Br J ClinPract Suppl. 1990 Sep; 71: 65-9.
[6]  Schwebke, J.R; Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 183(6): 1434-1439
[7]  Mackay MD. Gynecology. In: Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, editors. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment. Connecticut: Appleton & Lange; 1998:691-723.
[8]  Nanda N, Michel R G, Kurdgelashvili G, Wendel KA. Trichomoniasis and its treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2006; 4(1): 125-35.
[9]  Buve A, Weiss HA, Laga M, Van Dyck E, Musonda R. The epidemiology of trichomoniasis in women in four African cities. Int J STD¬†AIDS 2001; 15 (4):S89-96.
[10]  Ryan KA, Zekeng L, Roddy RE, Weir SS.Prevalence and prediction of sexually transmitted diseases among sex workers in Cameroon. Int J STD AIDS 1998; 9(7):403-407.
[11]  Mbu ER, Kongnyuy EJ, Mbopi-Keou FX, Tonye RN, Nana PN, Leke RJ. Gynecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon. Reprod Health. 2008; 3(9); 5:3.
[12]  Assob NJC, Weledji EP, Njunda AL, Bolimo F, Asongalem EA, Kamga FHL, Achidi EA, Penlap BV, Ndumbe PM. Bacteriological and Mycological characterization of some pathogens of the urogenital tract in Buea Sub-Division(South West Region Cameroon) Health Sci. Dis. 2009;10 (3): 10-16.
[13]  Njunda AL, Nsagha DS, Assob JCN, Kamga HL, TeyimP.In vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida albicans from HIV and AIDS patients attending the Nylon Health District Hospital in Douala, Cameroon.JPubl HealthAfr 2012; 3 (1):e2.
[14]  Ojiyi ED, Okeudo C, Anolue F, Audu B, Nggada H. The prevalence and predictors of genital tract infections in cervical cytology specimens at a University Teaching Hospital.Inter J GynecolObstet 2012; 16(1).
[15]  Ngokere AA, Ofordile PM. Cytological evaluation of cervical smears in the university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu and environs. A 5 years study. Orient J Med. 1996; 8:49-52.
[16]  Adinma JL, Okwoli RN, Agbai AO, Unnaeze NC. Gardnerellavaginalisvaginosis in Nigerian Igbo women. Trop J ObstetGynaecol 2000; 17: 21-23.