American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease
ISSN (Print): 2333-116X ISSN (Online): 2333-1275 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajeid Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2020, 8(2), 78-90
DOI: 10.12691/ajeid-8-2-4
Open AccessReview Article

Assessing Strategies to Improve Participation of Men in HIV Services in the Buea Health District of Cameroon: A Literature Review

Melvis Bora Samba1, , Alfred Kongnyu. Njamnshi2, Dickson Shey Nsagah1 and Verla Siysi Vincent3

1Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, South West Region, Cameroon

2Department of Internal Medicine & Specialties (Dermatology and Neurology), Faculty of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Centre Region, Cameroon

3Departments of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, South West Region, Cameroon

Pub. Date: October 26, 2020

Cite this paper:
Melvis Bora Samba, Alfred Kongnyu. Njamnshi, Dickson Shey Nsagah and Verla Siysi Vincent. Assessing Strategies to Improve Participation of Men in HIV Services in the Buea Health District of Cameroon: A Literature Review. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2020; 8(2):78-90. doi: 10.12691/ajeid-8-2-4

Abstract

Background: Men have been found to lag behind when it comes to seeking health care and this has also been evident in their response to HIV services, especially HIV testing which is the entry point in the prevention cascade. A number of studies carried on men have focused on men who have sex men or those partners to women at the antenatal clinics, but little is known about the majority of men who fall out of this group. Our aim here is to assess HIV strategies that can be used to scale up HIV Services uptake, especially HIV Testing, by men in the Buea Health District of Cameroon. To realize Sustainable Development Goal 3, especially target 3.3 which aims at ending the HIV epidemic by 2030, participation by men in HIV Services is imperative. Method: We used principal data bases like Google scholar, PubMed, Medline, EMBASE. Also, the website of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations’ Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) were further searched. Our search used the keywords HIV Services, HIV Testing, men, male, and men testing. We included articles, journals and reports from international and national organizations, including non-governmental organizations that were published from 2010 to 2019 in English. Results: The review revealed that men are not only slow in testing but in some worst instances, because of fear to know their status, some refuse their women from carrying an HIV test. This contributes to increase the proportion of people with unknown HIV status. Strategies like community based testing; especially HIV self-testing, home testing and community outreach has great potential to reach more men. Also, community based dissemination of the right information on HIV through health education can be a great tool to change attitudes and perception so as to cause more men yet unreached to participate actively in HIV services. Conclusion: Taking health care to the men instead of waiting for them to come is required to increase their access and uptake of HIV services.

Keywords:
HIV services HIV testing men male and men testing

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Camlin CS, Ssemmondo E, Chamie G, El Ayadi AM, Kwarisiima D, Sang N, et al. Men “missing” from population-based HIV testing: insights from qualitative research. AIDS Care. 2016; 28(Suppl 3): 67-73.
 
[2]  Chikovore J, Gillespie N, McGrath N, Orne-Gliemann J, Zuma T. Men, masculinity, and engagement with treatment as prevention in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS Care. 2016; 28(Suppl 3): 74-82.
 
[3]  Baker P, Dworkin SL, Tong S, Banks I, Shand T, Yamey G. The men’s health gap: men must be included in the global health equity agenda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014 Aug 1; 92(8): 618-20.
 
[4]  Leta TH, Sandøy IF, Fylkesnes K. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12(1): 438.
 
[5]  Kalembo FW, Zgambo M, Mulaga AN, Yukai D, Ahmed NI. Association between male partner involvement and the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions in Mwanza district, Malawi: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6).
 
[6]  Willer R, Rogalin CL, Conlon B, Wojnowicz MT. Overdoing Gender: A Test of the Masculine Overcompensation Thesis. American Journal of Sociology. 2013 Jan; 118(4): 980-1022.
 
[7]  Siu GE, Seeley J, Wight D. Dividuality, masculine respectability and reputation: How masculinity affects men’s uptake of HIV treatment in rural eastern Uganda. Social Science & Medicine. 2013 Jul 1; 89: 45-52.
 
[8]  Groves AK, Maman S, Msomi S, Makhanya N, Moodley D. The complexity of consent: women’s experiences testing for HIV at an antenatal clinic in Durban, South Africa. AIDS Care. 2010 May; 22(5): 538-44.
 
[9]  WHO | Sustainable Development Goal 3: Health [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2017 Dec 29]. Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/sustainable-development- goals/targets/en/.
 
[10]  Kilmarx PH. Global epidemiology of HIV: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. 2009 Jul;4(4): 240-6.
 
[11]  Fleming PJ, Colvin C, Peacock D, Dworkin SL. What role can gender-transformative programming for men play in increasing men’s HIV testing and engagement in HIV care and treatment in South Africa? Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2016 Nov; 18(11): 1251-64.
 
[12]  Stephenson R, Miriam Elfstrom K, Winter A. Community influences on married men’s uptake of HIV testing in eight African countries. AIDS Behav. 2013 Sep; 17(7): 2352-66.
 
[13]  Ditekemena J, Koole O, Engmann C, Matendo R, Tshefu A, Ryder R, et al. Determinants of male involvement in maternal and child health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. Reproductive Health, 2012 Dec [cited 2019 Mar 14]; 9(1).
 
[14]  Byamugisha R, Tumwine JK, Semiyaga N, Tylleskär T. Determinants of male involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey. Reproductive health. 2010; 7(1): 12.
 
[15]  Khawcharoenporn T, Apisarnthanarak A, Phanuphak N. Active targeted HIV testing and linkage to care among men who have sex with men attending a gay sauna in Thailand. AIDS Care. 2017; 29(3): 355-64.
 
[16]  Wang Z, Lau JTF, She R, Ip M, Jiang H, Ho SPY, et al. Behavioral intention to take up different types of HIV testing among men who have sex with men who were never-testers in Hong Kong. AIDS Care. 2018 Jan; 30(1): 95-102.
 
[17]  Chen H, Zhang Y, Tan H, Lin D, Chen M, Chen N, et al. Estimating the population size of men who have sex with men: a modified Laska, Meisner and Siegel procedure taking into account internet populations. Sex Transm Infect. 2013 Mar 1; 89(2): 142-7.
 
[18]  Yi S, Tuot S, Chhoun P, Brody C, Pal K, Oum S. Factors associated with recent HIV testing among high-risk men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study in Cambodia. BMC Public Health. 2015 Aug 1; 15: 743.
 
[19]  Obermeyer CM, Neuman M, Hardon A, Desclaux A, Wanyenze R, Ky-Zerbo O, et al. Socio-economic determinants of HIV testing and counselling: a comparative study in four African countries. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2013 Sep; 18(9): 1110-8.
 
[20]  Hensen B, Lewis JJ, Schaap A, Tembo M, Mutale W, Weiss HA, et al. Factors Associated with HIV-Testing and Acceptance of an Offer of Home-Based Testing by Men in Rural Zambia. AIDS Behav. 2015 Mar 1; 19(3): 492-504.
 
[21]  Simon V, Ho DD, Karim QA. HIV/AIDS epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. Lancet. 2006 Aug 5; 368(9534): 489-504.
 
[22]  UNAIDS. UNAIDS HIV Epidemic Transition Global Factsheets 2017. [cited 2019 Apr 12]. Available from: http://aidsinfo.unaids.org/.
 
[23]  UNAIDS. Cameroon, UNAIDS 2017 country profile estimate. 2017 [cited 2017 Dec 13]. Available from: www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/cameroon.
 
[24]  Anthony OK, Adetayo T, Folajinmi O. Gender and HIV Testing Service Uptake: Trend in Northern Nigeria. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2018 Jan 14]; 7(12).
 
[25]  UNAIDS. Prevention Gap Report. 2016 Jul [cited 2017 Dec 28]. Available from: https://www.google.cm/search?ei=VdVEWviXHsefU- qnuOgE&q=2017-prevention-gap-report&oq=2017.
 
[26]  UNAIDS. Facts Sheet, World AIDS Day 2017. Global HIV statistics.
 
[27]  Jean K, Anglaret X, Moh R, Lert F, Dray-Spira R. Barriers to HIV testing in Côte d’Ivoire: the role of individual characteristics and testing modalities. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(7): e41353.
 
[28]  Lippman SA, Shade SB, El Ayadi AM, Gilvydis JM, Grignon JS, Liegler T, et al. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Sep 1; 73(1): 91-9.
 
[29]  Yawson AE, Dako-Gyeke P, Snow R. Sex differences in HIV testing in Ghana, and policy implications. AIDS Care. 2012 Sep 1; 24(9): 1181-5.
 
[30]  Teklehaimanot HD, Teklehaimanot A, Yohannes M, Biratu D. Factors influencing the uptake of voluntary HIV counseling and testing in rural Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2016 Mar 8 [cited 2019 May 5]; 16. A
 
[31]  PEPFAR Cameroon. CAMEROON: Country Operational Plan Strategic Direction Summary. 2017.
 
[32]  Conserve DF, Iwelunmor J, Whembolua G-L, Sofolahan-Oladeinde Y, Teti M, Surkan PJ. Factors Associated With HIV Testing Among Men in Haiti: Results From the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey. Am J Mens Health. 2017 Sep; 11(5): 1322-30.
 
[33]  UNAIDS. Global AIDS Monitoring 2018 : Indicators for monitoring the 2016 United Nations Political Declaration on Ending AIDS. 2017.
 
[34]  WHO | HIV testing services [Internet]. WHO. World Health Organization; [cited 2020 Aug 25]. Available from: http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/vct/about/en/.
 
[35]  Shapiro AE, van Heerden A, Krows M, Sausi K, Sithole N, Schaafsma TT, et al. An implementation study of oral and blood-based HIV self-testing and linkage to care among men in rural and peri-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2020 Jun 1; 23(S2): e25514.
 
[36]  Essien EJ, Meshack AF, Peters RJ, Ogungbade GO, Osemene NI. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men. BMC Public Health. 2005 Jan 7; 5(1): 3.
 
[37]  Schatz E, Knight L. “I was referred from the other side”: Gender and HIV testing among older South Africans living with HIV. PLOS ONE. 2018 Apr 23; 13(4): e0196158.
 
[38]  Leblanc NM, Andes KL. An Exploration of Men’s Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of HIV, HIV Risk, and Willingness to Test for HIV in Yendi District, Northern Ghana. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 2015 May 1; 26(3): 281-95.
 
[39]  Reece M, Hollub A, Nangami M, Lane K. Assessing male spousal engagement with prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) programs in western Kenya. AIDS Care. 2010 Jun; 22(6): 743-50.
 
[40]  Sharma M, Barnabas RV, Celum C. Community-based strategies to strengthen men’s engagement in the HIV care cascade in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med. 2017 Apr 11 [cited 2019 Mar 12]; 14(4).
 
[41]  Mambanga P, Sirwali RN, Tshitangano T. Factors contributing to men’s reluctance to seek HIV counselling and testing at Primary Health Care facilities in Vhembe District of South Africa. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2016 May 31 [cited 2019 Apr 9]; 8(2).
 
[42]  Dangerfield DT, Craddock JB, Bruce OJ, Gilreath TD. HIV Testing and Health Care Utilization Behaviors Among Men in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2017 Jun; 28(3): 306-15.
 
[43]  van den Berg W, Brittain K, Mercer G, Peacock D, Stinson K, Janson H, et al. Improving Men’s Participation in Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV as a Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Priority in South Africa. PLoS Med. 2015 Apr 7 [cited 2019 Mar 12]; 12(4).
 
[44]  Sileo KM, Fielding-Miller R, Dworkin SL, Fleming PJ. A scoping review on the role of masculine norms in men’s engagement in the HIV care continuum in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Care. 2019 Mar 25; 1-12.
 
[45]  Chang W, Chamie G, Mwai D, Clark TD, Thirumurthy H, Charlebois ED, et al. Cost and efficiency of a hybrid mobile multi-disease testing approach with high HIV testing coverage in East Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Nov 1; 73(3): e39-45.
 
[46]  Mantell JE, DiCarlo AL, Remien RH, Zerbe A, Morris D, Pitt B, et al. ‘There’s no place like home’: perceptions of home-based HIV testing in Lesotho. Health Educ Res. 2014 Jun 1; 29(3): 456-69.
 
[47]  van Rooyen H, McGrath N, Chirowodza A, Joseph P, Fiamma A, Gray G, et al. Mobile VCT: Reaching Men and Young People in Urban and Rural South African Pilot Studies (NIMH Project Accept, HPTN 043). AIDS Behav. 2013 Nov 1; 17(9): 2946-53.
 
[48]  Scott-Sheldon LA, Carey MP, Carey KB, Cain D, Simbayi LC, Mehlomakhulu V, et al. HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions in sexual risk behaviours among men in Cape Town, South Africa. African Journal of AIDS Research. 2013 Dec 1; 12(4): 195-201.
 
[49]  Conserve DF, Issango J, Kilale AM, Njau B, Nhigula P, Memiah P, et al. Developing national strategies for reaching men with HIV testing services in Tanzania: results from the male catch-up plan. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 Dec; 19(1): 1-10.
 
[50]  Marcos Y, Phelps BR, Bachman G. Community strategies that improve care and retention along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV cascade: a review. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2012; 15(Suppl 2).