American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2328-7365 ISSN (Online): 2328-7357 Website: Editor-in-chief: Naima kaabouch
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2022, 10(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/ajeee-10-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Li-Fi Technology: Principle, Future Scope, Challenges and Applications

Arun Agarwal1, , Chandan Mohanta1 and Gourav Misra2

1Department of ECE, Institute of Technical Education & Research (ITER), Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar-751030, Odisha, India

2School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland

Pub. Date: January 23, 2022

Cite this paper:
Arun Agarwal, Chandan Mohanta and Gourav Misra. Li-Fi Technology: Principle, Future Scope, Challenges and Applications. American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 2022; 10(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/ajeee-10-1-1


Within a couple of decades we have headed from large and heavy devices used for voice communication alone to small and compact smart devices those are capable of handling multitasking operations as well as browsing through high-speed internet and HD video streaming. The stark difference among the previous generations and now is the rate of flow of data. If we want to expand our capabilities we need to proportionately increase the data rate keeping further exponential growth in the future too. This thesis investigates a heterogeneous network that comprises a Li-Fi and a Wi-Fi wireless fidelity network. Two tiers of miniature attocells of Li-Fi that use the visible light spectrum are used, resulting in a significant boost in wireless network's data transmission in the indoor environment. The frequency bands of LiFi and Wi-Fi do not overlap, as they belong to completely different spectrum. Unlike Wi-Fi access points (APs), Li-Fi access points (APs) cover a smaller area where even a minor client movement can result in multiple handoffs between Li-Fi attocells, impairing system performance.. As the span of handover decreases, however, the Li-Fi data rate increases with the increased bandwidth of the Li-Fi AP that is serving the client. Additionally, a comprehensive comparison between LiFi and Wi-Fi has been elaborated.

heterogeneous network Li-Fi Wi-Fi handover attocells CCI mobility data rate

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Light fidelity (Li-Fi): Towards alloptical networking,” presented at the Proc. SPIE, Broadband Access Communication Technologies VIII, San Francisco, CA, USA, Dec. 2013.
[2]  X. Li, R. Zhang, and L. Hanzo, “Cooperative load balancing in hybrid visible light communications and Wi-Fi,” IEEE Trans. Communication., vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1319-1329, Apr. 2015.
[3]  K. T. Swami and A. A. Moghe, “A Review of LiFi Technology,” 2020 5th IEEE International Conference on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE), 2020, pp. 1-5.
[4]  F. Jin, R. Zhang, and L. Hanzo, “Resource allocation under delay guarantee constraints for heterogeneous visible-light and RF femtocells,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Communication, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1020-1034, Feb. 2014.
[5]  H. Haas, Y. Wang, and C. Chen, “What is Li-Fi?,” IEEE Journal of Lightwave technology, vol. 34, no. 6, March 15, 2016.
[6]  S. Rajagopal, R. Roberts, and S.-K. Lim, “IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: Modulation schemes and dimming support,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 72-82, Mar. 2012.
[7]  S. P. Bhanse and S. R. Pawar, “Li + Wi Fi: The Future of Internet of Things,” 2018 3rd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES), 2018, pp. 538-543.
[8]  A. Farid and S. Hranilovic, “Capacity bounds for wireless optical intensity channels with Gaussian noise,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 12,pp. 6066-6077, Dec. 2010.
[9]  J. M. Abraham, H. Kumar and G. J. Bala, “Li-Fi: Illuminating the Future of Internet,” 2020 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), 2020, pp. 550-554.
[10]  Alfattani, Safwan. (2018). Review of LiFi Technology and Its Future Applications. Journal of Optical Communications. 42.