American Journal of Cancer Prevention
ISSN (Print): 2328-7314 ISSN (Online): 2328-7322 Website: Editor-in-chief: Nabil Abdel-Hamid
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013, 1(3), 20-23
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-1-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in the High Grade Preinvasive Cervical Lesions in Yaounde (Cameroon)

Zacharie Sando1, , Tomas McKee2, Jean Claude Pache2, Herman Kemajou1, Olive Folem1, Laura Rubbia – Brandt2 and Anderson Sama Doh1

1Department of Pathology, Gynaeco-obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Geneva University Hopsital, Geneva, Switzerland

Pub. Date: August 21, 2013

Cite this paper:
Zacharie Sando, Tomas McKee, Jean Claude Pache, Herman Kemajou, Olive Folem, Laura Rubbia – Brandt and Anderson Sama Doh. Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in the High Grade Preinvasive Cervical Lesions in Yaounde (Cameroon). American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013; 1(3):20-23. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-1-3-1


The objectives of this study were to detect and determine the different genotypes of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) found in high-grade squamous preinvasive lesions of the uterine cervix of Cameroonian women. HPV genotyping was conducted on 37 endocervical secretions of women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. HPV was found in 31 of the 37 women (83.8%); 9 different HPV genotypes were identified. The genotypes with high oncogenic potential were found in decreasing order of frequency as follows: 16, 18, 45, 33, 35 and 68. The frequency of strains found per patient ranged from 1 to 3. Genotypes 16 and 18 were single in 17 out of 31 patients. They were associated with other HPV genotypes in 4 out of 31 patients. In this study genotypes 16 and 18 are the most frequent genotypes encountered in high grade squamous preinvasive cervical lesions in Yaounde. This finding, if confirmed on a larger sample, portrays the potential effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the Cameroonian population as a preventive measure against cervical cancer. However, the position of genotype 45 is not negligible and should be confirmed on a large sample.

human papillomavirus high grade preinvasive lesion cervix

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 1


[1]  Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJL et al. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. The lancet, 378 (9801):1461-1484, Oct. 2011.
[2]  Enow-Orock GE, Essame-Oyono JL, Doh A . Cancer incidence in Yaoundé 2004-2008: Yaoundé Cancer Registry Technical Report.Yaoundé: National Cancer Control Program, Yaounde Cameroon, 2009.
[3]  Sellors JW, Sankaranarayanan R. Colposcopie et traitement des néoplasies cervicales intraépithéliales : Manuel à l’usage des débutants. Centre international de recherche sur le cancer, Lyon France, 2004.
[4]  Walboomers JMM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, Bosch FX, Kummer JA, Shah KV et al. Humann papilloma virus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol, 189 (1):12-19, Sept. 1999.
[5]  Didelot-Rousseau M-N, Nagot N, Costes-Martineau V, Ouedraogo A, Konate I, Weiss HA et al. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution and cervical intraepithelial lesions among high-risk women with and without HIV-1 infection in Burkina Faso. Br J Cancer, 95 (3): 355-362, Aug. 2006.
[6]  Ali-Risasi C, Praet M, Van Renterghem L, Zinga-Ilunga B, Sengeyi D, Lokomba V et al. Human Papilloma virus genotypic Profile in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo : implications for vaccination. Med Trop, 68(6) : 617-20, Dec. 2008.
[7]  Salih MM, Safi ME, Hart K, Tobi K, Adam I. Genotypes of human papilloma virus in Sudanese women with cervical pathology, Infect Agent Cancer, 5: 26, Dec. 2010.
[8]  Ciapponi A, Bardach A, Glujovsky D, Gibbons L, Picconi MA.. Type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical cancer and high-grade lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 6 (10):e25493. Epub 2011 Oct. 4.
[9]  Wentzensen N, Schiffman M, Dunn T, Zuna RE, Gold MA, Allen RA et al. Multiple human papillomavirus genotype infections in cervical cancer progression in the study to understand cervical cancer early endpoints and determinants. Int J Cancer, 125 (9):2151-8, Nov. 2009.
[10]  Kuypers JM, C. W. Critchlow CW, Gravitt PE, Vernon DA, Sayer JB, Manos MM et al., Comparison of dot filter hybridization, southern transfer hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction amplification for diagnosis of anal human papillomavirus infection. J Clin Microbiol, 31(4):1003-6, Apr. 1993.
[11]  Gravitt PE, Peyton CL, Apple RJ, Wheeler CM. Genotyping of 27 human papillomavirus types by using L1 consensus PCR products by a single-hybridization, reverse line blot detection method, J Clin Microbiol, 36 (10):3020-7, Oct. 1998.
[12]  Wamai RG, Ayissi CA, Oduwo GO, Perlman S, Welty E, Manga S et al. Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based sensitization strategy in creating awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among parents in North West Cameroon. J Community Health, 37(5):917-26, Oct. 2012.
[13]  Ayissi CA, Wamai RG, Oduwo GO, Perlman S, Welty E, Welty T et al. acceptability and uptake of human papilloma virus vaccine among Cameroonian school-attending female adolescents. J Community Health, 37(6):1127-35, Dec. 2012.
[14]  McCarey C, Pirek D, Tebeu PM, Boulvain M, Doh AS, Petignat P. Awareness of HPV and cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers. BMC Womens Health , 11:45, Oct. 2011.
[15]  Berner A, Hassel SB, Tebeu PM, Untiet S, Kengne-Fosso G, Navarria I et al. Human Papillomavirus Self-Sampling in Cameroon: Women's Uncertainties Over the Reliability of the Method Are Barriers to Acceptance. J Low Genit Tract Dis, 17(3): 235-41, Jul. 2013.
[16]  Hwang HS, Park M, Lee SY, Kwon KH, Pang MG. Distribution and Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Routine Pap Smear of 2470 Korean Women Determined by DNA chip. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13 (12):2153-56, Dec. 2004.
[17]  Stevens MP, Tabrizi SN, Quinn M , Garland SM. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Melbourne, Australia. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16 (3): 1017–1024, May-Jun. 2006.
[18]  Lindemann MLM, Sanchez JMC, Chacon JA, Itziar S, Diaz E, Rubio MD et al. Prevalence and distribution of high-risk genotype of HPV in women with severe cervical lesion in Madrid, Spain: importance of detecting genotype 16 and other high-risk genotypes. Adv Prev Med 2011; 2011:269468. doi: 10.4061/2011/2694 Epub 2010 Sep. 27.
[19]  Winkelstein WJ. Smoking and cervical cancer-current status: a review. Am J Epidemiol, 131(6): 945-957, Jun. 1990.
[20]  Clifford GM, Smith JS, Plummer M, Muňoz N. & Franceschi S. Human papilloma virus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta analysis. Br J Cancer, 88 (1):63-73, Jan. 2003.
[21]  Muňoz N, Bosh F X, Casttellague X, de Sanjose S, Hammouda D, Shah K V & al. Against which human papilloma virus types shall we vaccinate and screen? The international perspective. Int J Cancer; 111(2):278-285, Aug. 2004.
[22]  Chen CA, Liuy HH, Chou CY, Ho CM, Twu NF, Kan YY et al. The distribution and differential risks of human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical pre invasive lesions: a Taiwan Cooperative Oncologic Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16 (5):1801-1808, Sept-Oct. 2006.
[23]  Desruisseau AJ, Schmidt-Drimminger D, Welty E. Epidemiology of HPV in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Fertile Women in Cameroon, West Africa. Inf Dis Obstet Gynecol vol 2009 (2009).