American Journal of Cancer Prevention
ISSN (Print): 2328-7314 ISSN (Online): 2328-7322 Website: Editor-in-chief: Nabil Abdel-Hamid
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American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2022, 9(1), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/ajcp-9-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Linea Nigra and Gynaecomastia as Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer

Otike-Odibi Bolaji1 and John Edoka Raphael2,

1Department of Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

2Urology Division, Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: March 30, 2022

Cite this paper:
Otike-Odibi Bolaji and John Edoka Raphael. Linea Nigra and Gynaecomastia as Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2022; 9(1):1-3. doi: 10.12691/ajcp-9-1-1


Background: Linea nigra and gynaecomastia are presumably markers of estrogen function and impaired androgen receptor activity in certain disease conditions. Since prostate cancer (PCa) is androgen-dependent, Linea nigra (LN) and gynaecomastia could be potentially non-invasive modalities used in the risk assessment of patients during screening and diagnosis for prostate cancer. Objectives: This study aims to determine the relationship between prostate cancer with Linea nigra and gynaecomastia. Methods: This is a comparative descriptive cross-sectional study on forty patients, twenty with benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) and twenty with PCa, who presented to the urology outpatient department or were admitted to the urology ward of the hospital. A proforma data collection sheet collated demographic information, clinical presentation, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and Linea nigra and gynecomastia presence. The data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS Version 25 software. Chi-square and Spearman’s Rank analysis was used to test for association and relationship at a 95% confidence interval, with a p< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age was 71.0250 ± 11.01years, ranging from 39 to 96years. Linea nigra was seen in two (5%) and absent in thirty-eight (95%) of all the patients. The modal age range was the 70-79-year group, and none had linea nigra. Gynaecomastia was seen in four (10%) and absent in thirty-six (90%) of the patients. One patient in the age range of 50-59years, two in the 60-69years range and one in the 80-89 age range had gynaecomastia. A patient with BPE and three with PCa had gynaecomastia. There was no statistically significant association or relationship between gynaecomastia and prostate cancer. There was a significant association between gynaecomastia and PSA (p=0.008) but none between PSA and Linea nigra. Conclusion: Our study shows no statistically significant association between Linea nigra and gynaecomastia with prostate cancer. There is an association between gynaecomastia and PSA that require further evaluation. More extensive studies are needed to elucidate any relationships.

Gynaecomastia Linea nigra Prostate cancer Risk factors

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