American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4005 ISSN (Online): 2328-403X Website: Editor-in-chief: Dario Galante
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2018, 6(1), 5-9
DOI: 10.12691/ajcmr-6-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children below 14 Years before and after the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine

Faiz Mohammed alruwaili1, Abdullah Abdulrahman muharib1, Turki seran alharbi1, Abdulrhman Alnasser1, Areej Abdullatif Madani1, Esam Albanyan2, Mohammed Alshaalan1, Bassam Ahmed Almutlaq3 and Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed3,

1King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine

2Pediatric Infectious Diseases, King Abdullah Specialist Children’s hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh

3University of Hail, College of Medicine

Pub. Date: January 23, 2018

Cite this paper:
Faiz Mohammed alruwaili, Abdullah Abdulrahman muharib, Turki seran alharbi, Abdulrhman Alnasser, Areej Abdullatif Madani, Esam Albanyan, Mohammed Alshaalan, Bassam Ahmed Almutlaq and Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children below 14 Years before and after the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine. American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2018; 6(1):5-9. doi: 10.12691/ajcmr-6-1-2


Background: Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) is a life-threatening disease, which could be prevented by vaccination using Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine (PCV). Therefore, the aim of this study was compare the incidence before and after the introduction of the vaccine among children in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to determine the extent of the disease prevention by the vaccine. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study including all children who are ≤ 14 years of age and microbiologically confirmed as infected (cases) with Streptococcus pneumonia (SP) from a sterile body fluid (blood or cerebrospinal fluid) before the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccine between the years of 2004-2008 and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (2009-2015) in KAMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 171 retrieved cases, 131/171(76.6%) were not vaccinated and 40/171(23.4%) were vaccinated. Streptococcus Pneumonia was isolated from blood in 163/171(95%) of the cases, and from cerebrospinal fluid in 23/171(13.5%) of the cases. Conclusion: The introduction of PCV7 has significantly decreased the incidence rates of IPD in children. The conjugate vaccines have shown a significant efficacy in reducing IPD among our population.

Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Streptococcus pneumonia Saudi Arabia vaccine

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Voss L, Lenon D, Okensene-Gafe K, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease in a pediatric population, Auckland, New Zealand. PIDJ 1994; 13(10): 873-8.
[2]  Robinson KA, Baughman W, Rothrock G, Barrett NL, Pass M, Lexau C, et al. Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pneumonia infections in the United States, 1995-1998: Opportunities for prevention in the conjugate vaccine era. JAMA. 2001; 285(13): 1729-35.
[3]  Bennett NM, Buffington J, LaForce FM. Pneumococcal bacteremia in Monroe County, New York. Am J Public Health. 1992; 82(11): 1513-6.
[4]  Lipsky BA, Boyko EJ, Inui TS, Koepsell TD. Risk factors for acquiring pneumococcal infections. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146(11): 2179-85.
[5]  Bogaert D, De Groot R, Hermans PW. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004; 4(3): 144-54.
[6]  Ziad A Memish, AimanEl-Saed, BadriahAl-Otaib, et al. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal infection in children aged five years and under in Saudi Arabia: a five-year retrospective surveillance study. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010; 14(8): e708-e712.
[7]  Mackenzie, Grant A et al. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on pneumonia in The Gambia: population-based surveillance and case-control studies. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2017; 17 (9): 965-973.
[8]  Tan TQ. Pediatric Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the United States in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2012; 25(3): 409-419.
[9]  Càmara J, Marimón JM, Cercenado E, et al. Decrease of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adults after introduction of pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine in Spain. Ho PL, ed. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(4): e0175224.
[10]  Eliana L.Parra, Fernando De La Hoz, Paula L. Díaz, et al. Changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype distribution in invasive disease and nasopharyngeal carriage after the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Bogotá, Colombia. Vaccine 2013; 31(37): 4033-4038.
[11]  Alharbi NS, Al-Barrak AM, Al-Moamary MS, et al. The Saudi Thoracic Society pneumococcal vaccination guidelines-2016. Annals of Thoracic Medicine. 2016; 11(2): 93-102.
[12]  Fair RJ, Tor Y. Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance in the 21st Century. Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry. 2014; 6: 25-64.
[13]  Al Johani SM, Akhter J, Balkhy H, El-Saed A, Younan M, Memish Z. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative isolates in an adult intensive care unit at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2010; 30(5): 364-369.