American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4005 ISSN (Online): 2328-403X Website: Editor-in-chief: Dario Galante
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2016, 4(2), 25-28
DOI: 10.12691/ajcmr-4-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Prevalence and Common Microbial Isolates of Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy; A Four Year Review in a Tertiary Health Institution in Abakaliki, South-East Nigeria

O.B Anozie1, , Lawani O.L1, C.U.O Esike1, Mamah E1 and Ajah L.O.1

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: June 03, 2016

Cite this paper:
O.B Anozie, Lawani O.L, C.U.O Esike, Mamah E and Ajah L.O.. Prevalence and Common Microbial Isolates of Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy; A Four Year Review in a Tertiary Health Institution in Abakaliki, South-East Nigeria. American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2016; 4(2):25-28. doi: 10.12691/ajcmr-4-2-2


Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequently seen medical complications of pregnancy. Despite significant advances in managing urinary tract infection in pregnancy, its occurrence is still associated with adverse feto-maternal complications. Objective: To determine the prevalence and common microbial isolates of urinary tract infections in pregnancy at the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. Methodology: This was a four year retrospective study of cases of urinary tract infection in pregnancy (from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2015). A total of 111cases of urinary tract infection we reviewed under the 4 year period. Information were obtained from the medical records of participants and analysed with Epi info Version 7. The process involved descriptive statistics. Results: The prevalence of UTI in this study was 2.0%. The mean age of patients was 26.2±5.6years. Majority of the patients 58.6% (65) fell within the age range of 20-29 years and 30-39 years age group were 31(27.9%). Sixty two women (55.9%) had between 2 and 4 children while primiparas were 33.3% of the population. Second trimester presentation was highest 78(70.3%) and first trimester was 6(5.4%).The commonest symptoms where frequency 27%, dysuria 25.2%, fever 10.8% and supra-pubic pain with 8.1%. The predominant organism was Escherichia coli making up 70.3%(78). Stapylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia respectively were 13.5 and 11.7%. Levofloxacin had the highest level of sensitivity with 98(88.3%) isolates being sensitive to levofloxacin. This was closely followed by Ofloxacin 90(81.1%), Ceftriaxone 78(70.3%), Ceftazidime 70(63.1%), Nitrofurantoin 70(63.1) and Gentamycin 60(54.1%) amongst others. Penicillin and Co-Amoxiclav had the least organism sensitivity with 28(25.2%) and 36(32.4%) respectively. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women during the antenatal period should be considered an essential component of antenatal care in the communities to avoid the undesirable negative impact of undiagnosed and/or untreated urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

prevalence urinary Tract Infection Pregnancy uropathogens antibiotic sensitivity

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Lawani E U, Alade T, Oyelaran D. Urinary tract infection amongst pregnant women in Amassoma, Southern Nigeria. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2015;9(6):355-359.
[2]  Odigie J O, Anugweje K C. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in pregnancy in Port Harcourt. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 2010: 580-583.
[3]  South Australian Perinatal Practice Guidelines. Urinary tract infections in Pregnancy. Available from Accessed 23/03/2016.
[4]  Obiogbolu C H, Okonko I O, Anyamere C O, Adedeji A O, Akanbi A O, Ogun A A et al. Incidence of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) among pregnant women in Awka metropolis, Southeastern Nigeria. J Scientific Res Essay. 2009;4(8):820-824.
[5]  Fox N S, Rebarber A. Renal and Urinary tract disorders in Pregnancy. In: A H Decherney, L Nathan, N Laufer, A S Roman (Eds). Current Diagnosis and treatment in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 11th Edition. New York. McGraw-Hill, 2013; 483-492.
[6]  Akobi O A, Inyinbor H E, Akobi E C, Emumwen E G, Ogedengbe S O, Uzoigwe E O et al. Incidence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Niger- State, North Central Nigeria. Am J Infectious Dis Microbiol. 2014;2(2):34-38.
[7]  Idris H G, Ijaiya M A, Adeniran A S, Ajibola A A. Spectrum of uropathogens and its Antibiotic susceptibility in Pregnant women with symptomatic Urinary tract infection in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;31(1):30-38.
[8]  Onoh R C, Umeora OU, Egwuatu V E, Ezeonu P O, Onoh T P. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens from pregnant women with urinary tract infection in Abakaliki, Nigeria. J Infection Drug Res. 2013;6:225-233.
[9]  Kasinathan A, Thirumal P. Prevalence of Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital. Int J Rep Contraception Obstet Gynaecol. 2014;3(2):437-441.
[10]  Okonko I O, Ijandipe L A, Ilusanya A O, Donbraye-Emmanuel O B, Ejembi J, Udeze A O. Detection of urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Oluyoro Catholic Hospital, Ibada, South-Western Nigeria. Malaysian J Microbiol. 2010;6(1):16-24.
[11]  Onwuezobe I A, Orok F E. Associated risk factors of Asymptomatic Urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal care in a secondary Health care facility in a South-south Nigerian City. Int J Curr Micro Applied Sci.2015;8(8):223-230.
[12]  Igwegbe A O, Ugboaja J O, Okoli O A. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2012;6(1):88-98.
[13]  Lee M, Bozzo P, Einarson A, Koren G. Urinary tract infections in Pregnancy. Cann J Fam Physician. 2008;54:853-854.
[14]  Manjula N G, Math G C, Patil S A, Gaddad S M, Shivannavar C T. Incidence of urinary tract infections and its aetiological agents among pregnant women in Karnataka Region. J Adv Microbio. 2013;3:473-478.
[15]  Yakasai I A, Ugwu E A, Garba D I. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern symptomatic urinary tract infection in pregnancy in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012; 29(1):55-59.
[16]  McCormick T, Ashe R G, Kearney P M. Urinary tract infections in Pregnancy. The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist. 2008;10: 156-162.
[17]  Komala M, Kumar K P. Urinary tract infection: Causes, symptoms, Diagnosis and its management. Indian J Res Phamacy Biotech. 2013;1(2):226-233.
[18]  Emiru T, Beyene G, Tsegaye W, Melaku S. Associated risk factors of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes.2013;6:292-297.
[19]  Oli A N, Okafor C I, Ibezim E C, Akujiobi C N, Onwunzo M C. The prevalence and Bacteriology of asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal patients in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi; Southeast Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2010;13(4):409-412.
[20]  Demile T, Beyene G, Melaku S, Tegaye W. Diagnostic accuracy of rapid urine dipstick test to predict urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Research notes. 2014;7:481-485.
[21]  Scotish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of suspected bacterial Urinary tract infection in adults. A 2012 National clinical guideline. Available from Accessed 23/03/2016.
[22]  Chedi B A, Wannang N N, Halliru M A, Bichi L A. A seven months retrospective study on Urinary tract infection among patients at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria. Bayero J Pure Appl Sci. 2009;2(2):95-98.
[23]  Ferede G, Yismaw G, Wondimenech Y, Zufan S. The prevalence and Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial uropathogens isolated from pregnant women. Euro J Exp Bio. 2012; 2(5): 1497-1502.
[24]  Mukherjee K, Golia S, Vasudha C L, Babita, Bhattacharjee D, Chakroborti G. A study on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: prevalence, etiology and comparison of screening methods. Int J Res Med Sci. 2014;2(3):1085-1091.
[25]  Amala S E, Nwokah E G. Prevalence of asymptomatic Bacteriuria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Port Harcourt township, Nigeria and antibiogram of isolated bacteria. Am J Biomed. Sci. 2015;7(2):125-133.
[26]  Aminu K Y, Aliyu U U. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in pregnant women in the antenatal booking clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, kano, Nigeria. Open J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;5:286-297.
[27]  Luca M C, Vata A, Dorneanu O, Gabriela J, Dorobat C. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy- clinical picture and therapeutic approach in the infectious diseases hospital of Lasi (2009-2012). BMC Infectious Diseases. 2013;13(1):09-15.