American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4005 ISSN (Online): 2328-403X Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajcmr Editor-in-chief: Dario Galante
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American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2020, 8(1), 5-12
DOI: 10.12691/ajcmr-8-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Zamzam Water is Pathogen-free, Cardioprotective and Tissue-protective: Relieving the BBC Concerns

Hany Salah Mahmoud1, 2, Rehab A. Eltahlawi3, 4, Osama Alhadramy5, Tamer M. Soliman6, Yasser Mohamed FathyEl-Kot7, Nassar Ayoub Abdellatif Omar8, 9, Sayed Mostafa El Sayed10, 11, Hesham I. Abdallah10, 11, Momen El-shazley12, 13, Amal Nor Edeen Ahmad Allithy14, 15, Noha El-Dabie15, Mohamed Abdel-Haleem16, Amr El-Dardear17, Shaima Mohamed Abdelfattah Hassan18, Manal Mohamed Helmy19, Hassan El-Alaf20, Hussam Baghdadi21, Samer El-Sawy22 and Salah Mohamed El Sayed1, 23,

1Prophetic Medicine Course and research, Taibah College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia.

2Scientific Center for Experimental and Research Studies, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Zagazig University, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig, Egypt

4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Taibah College of Medicine, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

5Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taibah College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia.

6Department of Clinical Pathology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

7Consultant of Family Medicinein Directorate of Health(Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia) and Atlas Medical Center, Ministry of Health, Cairo, Egypt.

8Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt

9Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Rayyan Medical Colleges, Al-Madinah Al-Munwwarah, Saudi Arabia

10Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

11Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine-Ain Shams University, Egypt

12Department of Medicine, Taibah College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia

13Department of Occupational Diseases and Toxigenomics, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

14Department of Pathology, Al Rayyan Medical Colleges, Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia

15Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

16Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

17Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

18Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

19Consultant of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Maternity and children Hospital (Hail, Saudi Arabia) and Sohag Teaching Hospital (Sohag, Egypt) and Al Rayyan Medical Colleges (Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia).

20Department of Medical Physiology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

21Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Taibah Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University,Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia.

22Department of Medical Biochemistry, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

23Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Taibah Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University,Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia.;2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

Pub. Date: February 20, 2020

Cite this paper:
Hany Salah Mahmoud, Rehab A. Eltahlawi, Osama Alhadramy, Tamer M. Soliman, Yasser Mohamed FathyEl-Kot, Nassar Ayoub Abdellatif Omar, Sayed Mostafa El Sayed, Hesham I. Abdallah, Momen El-shazley, Amal Nor Edeen Ahmad Allithy, Noha El-Dabie, Mohamed Abdel-Haleem, Amr El-Dardear, Shaima Mohamed Abdelfattah Hassan, Manal Mohamed Helmy, Hassan El-Alaf, Hussam Baghdadi, Samer El-Sawy and Salah Mohamed El Sayed. Zamzam Water is Pathogen-free, Cardioprotective and Tissue-protective: Relieving the BBC Concerns. American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2020; 8(1):5-12. doi: 10.12691/ajcmr-8-1-2

Abstract

Zamzam water is the most beloved potable water for Muslims worldwide. It originates from Zamzam well near Al-Haram mosque in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) raised many health concerns regarding the high nitrate and arsenic contents in Zamzam water that warrants further research investigations. In this study, we investigated the presence of bacterial contamination in Zamzam water. We also examined the effects of regular exclusive Zamzam water consumption for three consecutive months on the liver and kidney functions in experimental animals. Ethical committee approval was taken for performing the study. Eighteen white albino mice were divided into three experimental groups (six mice per group): tap water group, distilled water group and Zamzam water group. All mice were sacrificed by the end of the scheduled study duration. Our data confirmed that Zamzam water is pathogen-free. Our data revealed that Zamzam water consumption for three consecutive months was quite safe for the general health, kidney function tests (serum urea and creatinine) and liver function tests (serum ALT, serum AST, serum albumin and serum globulin). All serum parameters were in their normal ranges, which were comparable to mice exclusively drinking tap water and distilled water. Serum albumin was significantly higher (p<0.001) in animals drinking Zamzam water and tap water than those drinking distilled water. Zamzam water consumption for prolonged periods was quite safe with no signs of acute or chronic arsenic toxicity and resulted in normal kidney histological structure. Normal serum AST confirms that Zamzam water is cardioprotective. In other words, BBC concerns regarding high arsenic and nitrate contents may be acceptable in tap water or other types of drinking water apart from Zamzam water. This is because Zamzam water is unique in its antioxidant components that abrogate any oxidative arsenic effects and confers a lot of therapeutic benefits owing to both arsenic and the antioxidants. In conclusion, Zamzam water is cardio-protective, tissue-protective and is promising as future therapeutic water for many ailments. Zamzam water is devoid of any bacteriological contamination. Nitrates in Zamzam water is an original constituent and not due to contamination. Same thing applies to arsenic. Zamzam water is also pathogen-free and is cardioprotective.

Keywords:
Zamzam water kidney functions liver functions AST histology BBC concerns

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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