American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4005 ISSN (Online): 2328-403X Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajcmr Editor-in-chief: Dario Galante
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American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2019, 7(1), 18-25
DOI: 10.12691/ajcmr-7-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Risk Factor of Human Immunodeficiency virus Encephalopathy in Children

Mia Milanti Dewi1, , Anggraini Alam1 and Nelly Amalia Risan1

1Department of Child Health, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia

Pub. Date: February 19, 2019

Cite this paper:
Mia Milanti Dewi, Anggraini Alam and Nelly Amalia Risan. Risk Factor of Human Immunodeficiency virus Encephalopathy in Children. American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2019; 7(1):18-25. doi: 10.12691/ajcmr-7-1-4

Abstract

HIV-1 viral infections have been found worldwide, including Indonesia. This HIV-1 virus may affect in every group of ages and spread throughout the organs even the central nervous system. The most common complication in central nervous system is HIV encephalopathy (HIVE). HIVE is frequently unrecognized by clinicians. Symptoms of HIVE were included such as growth defect, microcephaly, and symmetrical motoric deficit that occurs for more than 2 months. The aim of this study is to find out the risk factor of HIVE among children in Teratai Clinic, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Teratai Clinic, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. All patients fulfilled inclusion criteria underwent anthropometric measurement, anamnesis, and neurologic examination. Analisis data using multivariate logistic regression. Data were processed by SPSS 20. During period of study, 37 (44%) of pediatric patients with HIV were found suffered from HIVE, with mean of age of 71 months (20-153). Most of the patients were delivered spontaneously, breastfed, and living outside Bandung. Significant risk factor of HIVE incidence were age on diagnosis establishment (p= 0,045, 95% CI: 1,02–6,69) and duration of treatment (p=0,006 , 95% CI: 1). Age on diagnosis that established ≤2 years may contribute in HIVE risk factors. Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment > 5 years may reduce risk of HIVE. Duration of treatment was more significant in decreasing risk of HIVE compared with age in diagnosis established. It was concluded that HIV prevalence in this study was 44%. Age ≤ 2 years old when diagnosed as HIV and duration ARV > 5 years are the significant risk factor on HIVE.

Keywords:
encephalopathy microcephaly HIV HIVE Risk Factors

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