American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
ISSN (Print): 2328-398X ISSN (Online): 2328-3998 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mohammad Arif Kamal
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017, 5(4), 154-159
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-5-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Using Eccentrically Sample to Find the Relationship between Resistivity and Cracking Time in Cement Paste Vides Mechanical Strength and Electrical Resistivity

Maha. A. Abusogi1, WEI Xiaosheng1, and Fu lei1

1School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

Pub. Date: September 23, 2017

Cite this paper:
Maha. A. Abusogi, WEI Xiaosheng and Fu lei. Using Eccentrically Sample to Find the Relationship between Resistivity and Cracking Time in Cement Paste Vides Mechanical Strength and Electrical Resistivity. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2017; 5(4):154-159. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-5-4-3


Early-age cracking is often attributed as a major cause of reduction in the durability of concrete structures. The objective of this paper is to study the hydration behavior of various samples of different water-cement ratios, that’s in order to assess crack potential, compressive strength and setting time of the cement paste. The behavior of hydration was monitored by using a non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus. While a new eccentrically steel cracking frame (ESCF), setting time and compressive strength standard test were considered to measure the restrained shrinkage cracks, compressive strength and setting time respectively. The objective of using the eccentrically sample is to provide a new method to assess the cracks at early age by presents a complicated and non-uniform circumferential stress in the eccentrically cement paste ring. The results show that the electrical resistivity measurement of all samples with different water cement ratios had similar trends. Whereas the lowest water-cement ratio paste indicates highest resistivity values, reaches an earlier inflection point, and obtained higher compressive strength than other cement pastes of higher water-cement ratio. The eccentrically restrained cracking test (ERCT) and setting time demonstrated that lower water-cement ratio paste set and cracked earliest, which is therefore, confirmed its highest cracking tendency. The cracks took place at the narrow regions of specimens, which can be an indicator for eccentrically restrained shrinkage test (ERST). The cracks were observed as growing at narrow areas and reach full-depth over time. A mathematical model for predicting the cracking age of cement is proposed. The equation showed the existence of a positive relationship between electrical resistivity represented by inflection points (Ti) and cracks time (Tc).

eccentrically steel cracking frame eccentrically restrained cracking test eccentrically restrained shrinkage test

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  J. Branston, S. Das, S. Y. Kenno, and C. Taylor, “Influence of basalt fibres on free and restrained plastic shrinkage,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 74, pp. 182-190, 2016.
[2]  H. Beushausen and N. Bester, “The influence of curing on restrained shrinkage cracking of bonded concrete overlays,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 87, pp. 87-96, 2016.
[3]  ACI224, “Causes, Evaluation, and Repair of Cracks in Concrete Structures,” Technical Documents, American Concrete Institute United States, 2007.
[4]  H. M. Aktan, G. Fu, W. Dekelbab, and U. Attanayaka, “Investigate causes & develop methods to minimize early-age deck cracking on Michigan bridge decks,” 2003.
[5]  M. A. Saadeghvaziri and R. Hadidi, “Cause and control of transverse cracking in concrete bridge decks,” 2002.
[6]  S. M. Bawa, X. Wei, and L. Wang, “The relationship between electrical resistivity of cement paste and its restrained shrinkage crack with the aid of novel apparatus and ANSYS simulation,” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 21, pp. 339-345, 2017.
[7]  M. Grzybowski and S. P. Shah, “Shrinkage cracking of fiber reinforced concrete,” Materials Journal, vol. 87, pp. 138-148, 1990.
[8]  W. Dong, X. Zhou, and Z. Wu, “A fracture mechanics-based method for prediction of cracking of circular and elliptical concrete rings under restrained shrinkage,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 131, pp. 687-701, 2014.
[9]  C. A. Shaeles and K. C. Hover, “Influence of mix proportions and construction operations on plastic shrinkage cracking in thin slabs,” Materials Journal, vol. 85, pp. 495-504, 1988.
[10]  K. Kovler, J. Sikuler, and A. Bentur, “Restrained shrinkage tests of fibre-reinforced concrete ring specimens: effect of core thermal expansion,” Materials and Structures, vol. 26, pp. 231-237, 1993.
[11]  F. Collins and J. Sanjayan, “Cracking tendency of alkali-activated slag concrete subjected to restrained shrinkage,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 30, pp. 791-798, 2000.
[12]  AASTHO, “Standard Practice for Estimating the Cracking Tendency of Concrete A Specification” in Designation: , ed. United States, 1997, pp. PP34-99, 1997.
[13]  X. Wei and Z. Li, “Early hydration process of Portland cement paste by electrical measurement,” Journal of materials in civil engineering, vol. 18, pp. 99-105, 2006.
[14]  ASTM”C109-1998”. “Test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] cube specimens),” vol. vol. 04.01, 1998.
[15]  C. ASTM, “403/403M-99 (1999) Standard test methods for time of setting of concrete mixtures by penetration resistance,” Annual book of ASTM standards, vol. 4, pp. 1-6, 1999.
[16]  B. S. Muazu, X. Wei, and L. Wang, “Hydration process and crack tendency of concrete based on resistivity and restrained shrinkage crack,” Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed., vol. 31, pp. 1026-1030, 2016.
[17]  Y. Liao, X. Wei, and G. Li, “Early hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cement through electrical resistivity measurement and microstructure investigations,” Construction and building materials, vol. 25, pp. 1572-1579, 2011.
[18]  X. Wei, L. Xiao, and Z. Li, “Electrical measurement to assess hydration process and the porosity formation,” Journal of Wuhan University of Technology--Materials Science Edition, vol. 23, pp. 761-766, 2008.