American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
ISSN (Print): 2328-398X ISSN (Online): 2328-3998 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mohammad Arif Kamal
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(4), 129-136
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-4-3
Open AccessArticle

The Upshot of the 2012 Flooding on Structural Components and Fabrics of Buildings at Ogbaru, Anambra State Nigeria

Ezeokoli F. O.1, Okoye P. U.1, and Ugochukwu S. C.2

1Department of Building, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Quantity Surveying, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Pub. Date: August 27, 2015

Cite this paper:
Ezeokoli F. O., Okoye P. U. and Ugochukwu S. C.. The Upshot of the 2012 Flooding on Structural Components and Fabrics of Buildings at Ogbaru, Anambra State Nigeria. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(4):129-136. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-4-3


The study examined the effect of the 2012 flooding on structural components and fabrics of buildings at Ogbaru Local Government Area of Anambra State. It also examined the heights of the ground floors and foundations of the buildings respectively in relation to the height of the flood. Questionnaire survey on the selected households and physical examination on the building structures were carried out. The study revealed that most buildings in the area were either fully or partially submerged during the flood incidence. it further revealed that there no very severe damages on the structural components of the buildings, despite that most of the buildings have low ground floor levels (74%) and shallow foundations (68%) below 300mm. However, building fabrics and elements such as finishes and electrical fittings were severely damaged when the flood height rose 1 metre above the ground floor level. More so, the study revealed that the flood severely damaged both the structural components and fabrics of very old, weak and mud buildings. Based on this, the study recommended that building constructors in the area should raise the ground floor level of their building projects to at least 1 metre above the ground level. It also recommended suspension of buildings on plinths and use of deep stripe or raft foundation. The use water resistant materials and components such as paints, doors, windows and electrical fittings and incorporation of oversite concrete as floors while building new structures or refurbishing existing ones are also recommended.

buildings building fabrics built environment flood disaster Ogbaru structural components

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ofori, G., Construction industry development for disaster prevention and response, Singapore University Press, Singapore, 2006.
[2]  Adedeji, O.H., Odufuwa, B.O. and Adebayo, O.H., “Building capabilities for flood and hazard preparedness and risk reduction in Nigeria: need for spatial planning and land management,” Journal of sustainable Development in Africa, 14 (1), 45-58, 2012.
[3]  Haigh, R., “Developing a resilience built environment: post-disaster reconstruction as a window of opportunity,” International Conference on sustainable environments (ICSBE,) Kandy, Dec. 13-14, 2010.
[4]  Linham, M. M. and Nicholls, R.J., “Technologies for climate change adaptation – coastal erosion and flooding,” UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde Denmark, 2010. Available: [Accessed November 5, 2014].
[5]  Schramn, D. and Dries, R., Natural Hazard; causes and effects, University of Wisconson, U.S.A, 1986.
[6]  Nwilo, P.C., “Geospatial information in flooding and disaster management in Nigeria,” 7th Annual Lecture of Faculty of Environmental Sciences Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria, 2013.
[7]  Don Okpala, V.U., “The environmental effects of flood disaster in Anambra state,” Advances in Applied Science Research, 4(1), 499-505, 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed September 26, 2014].
[8]  Ezeabasili, A.C.C. and Okonkwo, A.U., “Climate change impacts on the built environment in Nigeria,” African Research Review, 7(4), 288-303, 2013.
[9]  National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), “Annual report on flood,” Official Gazette, Abuja, 2012.
[10]  Ajaero, C.K. and Mozie, A.T., “Socio-demographic differentials in vulnerability to flood disasters in rural Southeastern Nigeria,” International Seminar on Demographic Differential Vulnerability to Natural Disasters in the Context of Climate Change Adaptation organised by IUSSP in collaboration with Chulalongkorn University Bangkok and the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, VID/OAW,WU) held in Kao Lak, Thailand, 23-25 April, 2014.
[11]  Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) 2012 seasonal rainfall prediction & socio-economic implications for Nigeria, 2012.
[12]  Jha, A., Lamond, J., Bloch, R., Bhattacharya, N., Lopez, A., Papachristodoulou, N., Bird, B., Proverbs, D., Davies, J. and Barker, R., Five feet high and rising cities and flooding in the 21st century,” Policy Research Working Paper, The World Bank East Asia and Pacific Region Transport, Energy & Urban Sustainable Development Unit, 2011.
[13]  CIRIA, Improving the flood performance of new buildings flood resilient construction, RIBA Publishing, London, UK, 2007.
[14]  United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), “Nigeria: Floods Situation Report No. 2 (as of 15 November 2012),” Report of OCHA Humanitarian Advisory team in Nigeria in collaboration with humanitarian partners, 2012.
[15]  Anambra State Government (ANSG), “Anambra State Flood Disaster Relief Coordinating Committee Interim Report 1,” Anambra Forum, 2012.
[16]  Anambra State Emergency Management Agencies (ANSEMA), “Report on flood in Anambra state,” Official Report, Awka, 2012.
[17]  Efobi, K. and Anierobi, C., “Impact of flooding on riverine communities: the experience of the Omambala and other areas in Anambra State, Nigeria,” Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4(18), 58-63, 2013.
[18]  Monanu, P.C., “Temperature and sunshine,” in Ofomata, G.E.K.(ed), Nigeria in Maps: Eastern States, Ethiope Publishing House, Benin City, 16-18, 1975a.
[19]  Monanu, P.C., “Humidity,” in Ofomata, G.E.K.(ed), Nigeria in Maps :Eastern States, Ethiope Publishing House, Benin City, 19-21, 1975b.
[20]  Ezenwaji E.E., Orji M.U., Enete, C.I. and Ahiadu, H.O., “The effect of climate change on the communities of Ogbaru Wetland of South West Anambra State, Nigeria,” New York Science Journal, 7(10), 68 - 74, 2014.
[21]  National Population Commission (NPC), “Population census figures for 2006,” Official Gazette, Abuja, 2006.
[22]  Cochran, W. G., Sampling techniques, (3rd ed.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977.