American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
ISSN (Print): 2328-398X ISSN (Online): 2328-3998 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mohammad Arif Kamal
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014, 2(6), 177-185
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-2-6-1
Open AccessArticle

Optimizing the Risk-preparedness and Disaster Management Systems of all World Heritage Sites by Exploiting HPWS and Conform to the UNESCO Guidelines

Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy1,

1Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, (IIUM), Gombak, Malaysia

Pub. Date: November 26, 2014

Cite this paper:
Mehdi S. Kaddory Al-Zubaidy. Optimizing the Risk-preparedness and Disaster Management Systems of all World Heritage Sites by Exploiting HPWS and Conform to the UNESCO Guidelines. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2014; 2(6):177-185. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-2-6-1


The paper examines the possible efficacy of HPWS (High-Performance Work System) in optimizing the risk-preparedness and disaster management of the World Heritage Sites (WHS), using Alhambra Palace, Spain, as the test site. Most of the WHSs are vulnerable to various types of risks, and the UNESCO has set a stringent standard for their maintenance, failing which any WHS will lose its title. The paper has a goal of finding a common risk-preparedness and disaster management solution that would enable all WHSs to conform to the maintenance standard set by the UNESCO. A test survey conducted on Alhambra site WHS which chosen as a case study of World Heritage Sites under UNESCO, the feedback shown that it is possible to exploit HPWS to optimize the risk-preparedness and disaster management systems of all World Heritage Sites and conform to the UNESCO Guidelines.

World Heritage Sites (WHS) risk-preparedness UNESCO disaster management HPWS

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  UNESCO, (2009). Strengthening Disaster Risk Reduction at World Heritage Properties: the Olympia Protocol for International Cooperation. [online]. Available at
[2]  UNESCO. (2012). World heritage list. [Online] Available: (January 12, 2011).
[3]  Rits-DMUCH. (2012). UNESCO Chair Program on Cultural Heritage and Risk Management International Training Course on Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage 2012. [online]. Available at
[4]  George, P. (2012). Disaster archaeology. [online]. Available at
[5]  Wright, P and Guthrie, J. (2005). Labor productivity and HRM. Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), pp. 137-174.
[6]  Gardner, T. and Allen, M. (2005). Relationship between worker performance and HR practices. Personnel Psychology, 57: 4, 419-416.
[7]  Stovel, H. (1998). Risk preparedness: A management manual for World Cultural Heritage. Rome: ICCROM.
[8]  Shaw, D and Delery, J. (2001). Research in Personnel and HR management. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.
[9]  Civallero, E. (2008). When Memory Turns into Ashes ... Memoricide During the XX Century. [online]. Available at
[10]  Chiedozie, A, (2009), The history of Nalanda University. [Online] Available: (December 3, 2012).
[11]  Stovel, H. (1998). Risk preparedness: a management manual for world cultural heritage. [online]. Available at (January, 27, 2103).
[12]  Taboroff, J. (2003). Natural disasters and urban cultural heritage: A reassessment. In Building safer cities: The future of disaster risk. World Bank: Washington, DC. [Online] Available: ( January 5, 2011).
[13]  Erturk, N. (2004). Earthquake preparedness towards cultural heritage losses: The case study of Istanbul museums. In C. Menegazzi (ed.), International Symposium on Cultural Heritage Disaster Preparedness and Response (pp. 243-248). Paris: International Council of Museums (ICOM) Publications.
[14]  Grugulis, I. and Marchinton, M. (2000). Best practice management. Journal of Human Resource Management, 11: 6, 1114-1154.
[15]  UNESCO / WHC. (2008). Operational guidelines for the implementation of the world heritage convention. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
[16]  UNESCO / WHC, (2007), Case studies on climate change and world heritage.
[17]  Wittemyer, G., Elsen, P., Bean, W.T., Coleman, A., Burton, O. & Brashares, J.S. (2008). Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science, 321, 123-126.
[18]  Paauwe, J. (2004). Achieving long term viability in HRM performance. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
[19]  Boxall, P. & Macky, K. (2007). High-performance work systems and organisational performance: Bridging theory and practice. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 45(3), 261-270.
[20]  Boxall, P. & Macky, K. (2009). Research and theory on high-performance work systems: progressing the high involvement stream. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(1), 3-23.
[21]  Barnes, W. F. (2001). The challenge of implementing and sustaining high performance work system in the United States: An evolutionary analysis of I/N Tek and Kote. Doctoral dissertation: University of Notre Dame.
[22]  Ichniowski, C., Kochan, T., Levine, D., Olson, O., & Strauss, G. (1996). What works at work. Industrial Relations, 35, 299-333.
[23]  Applebaum, E., Bailey, T., Berg, P., and Kalleberg, A. (2000). Manufacturing advantage: Why high-performance work systems pay off, Ithaca: ILR Press.
[24]  Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K., & Prennushi, G. (1997) The effects of human resources management practices on productivity: a study of steel finishing lines. The American Economic Review, 87(3), 291-313.
[25]  Huselid, M.A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635-672.
[26]  Gardner, J. (1989). On leadership. New York: Free Press.
[27]  Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. NY: Bantam.
[28]  Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. NY: Bantam.
[29]  Owen Jones and the Alhambra, (2012), [Online] Available: (December 22, 2012).
[30]  Hermann, E. D. (1996). Urban Formation and Landscape: Symbol and Agent of Social, Political and Environmental Change Fourteenth-Century Nasrid Granada. PhD Dissertation, Harvard University.
[31]  Irwin, R. (2004). The Alhambra. London: Profile Books. World Cultural Heritage. 22(1).pp. 18-34.
[32]  Andreason, A.R. (1996). Profits for nonprofits: Find a corporate partner. Harvard Business Review, 74 (6), 47-69.
[33]  Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2003).Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford.
[34]  Al-Zubaidy, Mehdi S. Kaddory; Omer, Spahic; Abdullah, Alias (2012), Exploiting HPWS to Fulfil UNESCO Goals of Preserving and Utilising WHSs FOR THE Benefit of Mankind Part 1, Journal of Knowledge & Human Resource Management, Vol. 4 Issue 8, p88.
[35]  Al-Zubaidy, Mehdi S. Kaddory; Omer, Spahic; Abdullah, Alias (2013), Minimizing Environmental Impact on World Heritage Sites by Exploiting Green Energy, Journal of Global Intelligence & Policy; Fall2013, Vol. 6 Issue 11, p 141.